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Inoue M.,Curtin University Australia | Binns C.W.,Curtin University Australia | Katsuki Y.,Kobe Shinwa Womens University | Ouchi M.,University of Hyogo
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

This study describes Japanese mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding using the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitudes Scale (IIFAS). A cross-sectional survey of 1,612 mothers was conducted in Japan in 2007. The participants were recruited at the free health checks conducted for infants at 18 months of age. The survey was self-administered using the Japanese version of the IIFAS. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise sample characteristics and IIFAS score followed by multiple logistic regression to identify association between total IIFAS score and breastfeeding duration. While the IIFAS showed that the majority recognized some benefits of breastfeeding, their overall knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding were neutral and more positive towards the use of infant formula. It is important to provide accurate prenatal education that focuses on methods and long-term benefits of infant feeding to mothers, family and health professionals. Source

Nucci L.,University of California at Berkeley | Smetana J.,University of Rochester | Araki N.,Fukuyama University | Nakaue M.,Kobe Shinwa Womens University | Comer J.,University of Rochester
Child Development | Year: 2014

Adolescents' obligation to disclose and their actual disclosure about their activities to parents, justifications for nondisclosure, and strategies for information management were examined in different domains in 460 middle adolescents (Mage = 16.6 years) from working and middle-class families in Japan. Adolescents felt most obligated to disclose prudential issues, but disclosed most about personal issues. Adolescents primarily justified nondisclosure with claims to personal choice and for prudential issues, concerns with parental disapproval. They rarely lied and mostly told parents if asked or avoided the issue. Findings revealed consistencies with prior work on disclosure with European and U.S. adolescents, as well as patterns specific to the Japanese cultural setting. © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc. Source

Tanaka H.,The University of Shimane | Takeuchi Y.,The University of Shimane | Ishikawa T.,Kobe Shinwa Womens University | Nakayama T.,Kobe Steel
Corrosion Science | Year: 2011

To simulate the atmospheric corrosion of steels galvanized with Zn under different conditions, artificial zinc rusts of basic zinc salt (BZS) were prepared by hydrolyzing ZnO particles in aqueous solutions including ZnCl2, ZnSO4 and Zn(NO3)2. In ZnCl2-ZnSO4, ZnSO4-Zn(NO3)2 and ZnCl2-Zn(NO3)2-ZnSO4 systems, zinc hydroxysulfate (Zn4(OH)6(SO4)·nH2O) was formed while zinc hydroxychloride (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) was generated in ZnCl2-Zn(NO3)2 system. Zinc hydroxynitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2·2H2O) was yielded in only Zn(NO3)2 system. All the formed artificial zinc rusts were hexagonal plate particles. These results suggest that SOx is the most effective corrosive gas on the formation of BZS rusts on galvanized steel. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Tanaka H.,The University of Shimane | Tashima K.,The University of Shimane | Kandori K.,Osaka University | Ishikawa T.,Kobe Shinwa Womens University | Nakayama T.,Kobe Steel
Corrosion Science | Year: 2011

To simulate the atmospheric corrosion of steels galvanized with Ti-Zn alloys under different atmospheric temperatures, Ti(IV)-doped zinc hydroxychloride (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O: ZHC) was prepared at various aging temperatures of 6-120°C. Adding the Ti(IV) inhibited the crystallization and particle growth of ZHC, showing a minimum at 50°C. Higher aging temperature promoted the formation of TiO2 nano-particles. Elevating the aging temperature suppressed the adsorption of H2O and CO2 on Ti(IV)-doped ZHC. These results suggest that the alloying Ti in galvanized steel forms compact zinc rust layer at various atmospheric temperatures in marine environment, which would lead to the enhancement of corrosion resistance. © 2010. Source

Uno K.,Yamanashi University | Akitsu T.,Yamanashi University | Nakamura K.,Kobe Shinwa Womens University | Jitsuno T.,Osaka University
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2013

We developed a modified driver circuit composed of a capacitance and a spark gap, called a direct-drive circuit, for a longitudinally excited gas laser. The direct-drive circuit uses a large discharge impedance caused by a long discharge length of the longitudinal excitation scheme and eliminates the buffer capacitance used in the traditional capacitor-transfer circuit. We compared the direct-drive circuit and the capacitor-transfer circuit in a longitudinally excited N2 laser (wavelength: 337 nm). Producing high output energy with the capacitor-transfer circuit requires a large storage capacitance and a discharge tube with optimum dimensions (an inner diameter of 4 mm and a length of 10 cm in this work); in contrast, the direct-drive circuit requires a high breakdown voltage, achieved with a small storage capacitance and a large discharge tube. Additionally, for the same input energy of 792 mJ, the maximum output energy of the capacitor-transfer circuit was 174.2 μJ, and that of the direct-drive circuit was 344.7 μJ. © 2013 American Institute of Physics. Source

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