Kobe Institute of Health

Chūō-ku, Japan

Kobe Institute of Health

Chūō-ku, Japan

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Iijima Y.,Kobe Institute of Health | Nakanishi N.,Kobe Institute of Health | Furusawa H.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Ohnishi T.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Sugita-Konishi Y.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Kudoa septempunctata, a myxosporean parasite, was recently identified as the causative agent of food poisoning resulting from the consumption of raw olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). A single blind inter-laboratory study, involving 5 laboratories, was conducted to validate a quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection of the parasite. We obtained relatively constant values for log rDNA copies/g from these laboratory analyses (SD = 0.35-0.86), suggesting the validity of the realtime PCR method for the detection of K. septempunctata in P. olivaceus. Detection of K. septempunctata in muscle tissue samples collected from both sides of the fish indicated that K. septempunctata infection spreads throughout the body of P. olivaceus. K. septempunctata infection in P. olivaceus is thought to occur during the early stage of fish growth because a K. septempunctata gene was detected in 1 of 300 P. olivaceus fry tested. Feeds seem not to be sources of infection. To prevent food poisoning due to K. septempunctata, the mechanism of infection and proliferation of K. septempunctata in P. olivaceus should be elucidated, and other hosts of the prasite should be identified. The sensitive realtime PCR method described here will be a useful tool for resolving these issues.

Maeda S.,Research Institute of Tuberculosis | Wada T.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Iwamoto T.,Kobe Institute of Health | Murase Y.,Research Institute of Tuberculosis | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2010

To estimate the current population genetic structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Japan, phylogenetic traits were analysed for 237 Beijing family strains isolated from tuberculosis patients throughout the country. Unlike previous reports from other countries, the ancient Beijing sublineage was predominant throughout Japan. Clustering analysis based on JATA-VNTR (Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association variable numbers of tandem repeats), a specialised set of VNTR for the discrimination of Japanese M. tuberculosis strains, revealed high similarity of the modern Beijing sublineage strains, irrespective of their geographic origin. JATA-VNTR might be useful for the phylogenetic classification in populations where ancient Beijing strains are frequently isolated. © 2010 The Union.

Yoshida S.,National Hospital Organization | Tsuyuguchi K.,National Hospital Organization | Suzuki K.,National Hospital Organization Kinki chuo Chest Medical Center | Tomita M.,National Hospital Organization | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to genetically analyse Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus (hereafter M. abscessus) and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii (hereafter M. bolletii) isolates from six different regions of Japan and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates. Subspeciation of 143 clinical isolates of M. abscessus group was done by comparative sequence analysis of the rpoB and hsp65 genes and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Genetic analysis led to the identification of 90 M. abscessus (62.9%) and 53 M. bolletii (37.1%; comprising 50 'M. massiliense' and 3 'M. bolletii' in the old nomenclature). No significant differences were found between the M. abscessus and M. bolletii isolates in any characteristics. Susceptibility to clarithromycin and linezolid for M. bolletii isolates was significantly higher than that for M. abscessus (P < 0.05). Moreover, the results demonstrated that 82 M. abscessus isolates with T28 sequevar were resistant to clarithromycin owing to the expression of erm(41), which was induced by clarithromycin, whilst 8 isolates with C28 sequevar were susceptible. Acquired clarithromycin resistance in 'M. bolletii' isolates was significantly associated with previous Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) treatment compared with that of M. abscessus isolates; however, intrinsic inducible susceptibility of M. abscessus isolates was not associated with MAC treatment. However, acquired resistance to clarithromycin by mutation in the rrl gene encoding 23S rRNA did not occur in 14 of 18 resistant isolates. Strains with acquired resistance to clarithromycin and mutation in rrl consisted of two M. bolletii (one 'M. massiliense' and one 'M. bolletii') and two M. abscessus T28 sequevar. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy.

Nakanishi N.,Kobe Institute of Health | Wada T.,Nagasaki University | Arikawa K.,Kobe Institute of Health | Millet J.,Institute Pasteur Of Guadeloupe | And 2 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Genotypic classification in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has greatly contributed to the comprehension of phylogenetic and population genetic relationships. It is, therefore, necessary to verify the robustness of the genetic markers for phylogenetic classification. In this study, we report some examples of homoplasy for two molecular markers, the IS. 6110 insertion at the NTF region, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at locus 909166, through genotyping of 1054 Beijing family strains. Our data revealed that a small fraction of strains traditionally classified into modern sublineages by IS. 6110 insertion at NTF actually belong to an ancient sublineage. We also proved that the robustness of branches in the evolutionary tree established using the putative homoplasious SNP 909166 is relatively low. Our findings highlight the importance of validating genetic markers used to establish phylogeny, evolution, and phenotypic characteristics. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Sugiura Y.,Kobe Institute of Health | Hironaga M.,Hironaga Dermatology Clinic
Medical Mycology | Year: 2010

We report a rare case of onychomycosis due to Arthrographis kalrae, and describe an attempt to elucidate the source of the infection by fungal isolation and PCR-based methods for detection of A. kalrae. The patient was a 63-year-old Japanese man, whose fingernails, excluding the right index finger, were markedly dystrophic. Microscopic examination of his fingernails disclosed hyaline hyphae and arthroconidia. The causal agent was identified as A. kalrae based on morphological characteristics and ITS region sequencing. The fungus was susceptible in vitro to terbinafine, itraconazole, and miconazole. A therapeutic trial of oral terbinafine, 125 mg/day and topical 1% miconazole for seven months brought about a complete cure of the ungual lesion. We found that A. kalrae could be detected at 1.1×104 CFU/g (92.4% incidence) in soil from the patient's garden. Furthermore, varying CFUs of A. kalrae were recovered in 61% of the samples obtained from crop field soils, commercially available soils or allied products for gardening. Since the patient was working with soil that harbored A. kalrae, the possibility of acquiring the infection from this source should not be excluded. © 2010 ISHAM.

Wada T.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Iwamoto T.,Kobe Institute of Health | Hase A.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Maeda S.,The Research Institute of Tuberculosis
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

The Beijing family is an endemic lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in eastern Asia. In Japan, five evolutionarily sequential sublineages composing the lineage have predominated. Comparative genomic sequencing based on a microarray technique was conducted for five representative strains of those respective sublineages. Results revealed approximately 200 point mutations specific to each strain. Subsequently, to investigate the genetic diversity of each sublineage, we analysed the phylogenetic divergence of 103 domestic strains belonging to them using genetic markers derived from the mutation information. Results show that the five sublineages have comprised smaller lineages which had diverged at various points. The smaller sub-sublineages have emerged with respective bottlenecks, which are reflected in the excessive monophyletic evolution of the species. Our data provide necessary information to grasp a comprehensive picture of genetic diversity of the lineage constructed in its evolution. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Nukuzuma S.,Kobe Institute of Health | Kameoka M.,Kobe University | Sugiura S.,Nara Medical University | Nakamichi K.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2013

The incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has increased due to the AIDS pandemic, hematological malignancies, and immunosuppressive therapies. Recently, the number of cases of monoclonal antibody-associated PML has increased in patients treated with immunomodulatory drugs such as natalizumab. However, no common consensus regarding PML therapy has been reached in clinical studies. In order to examine the suppression of JC virus (JCV) replication by 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), a representative PARP-1 inhibitor, a DNA replication assay was carried out using the neuroblastoma cell line IMR-32 and IMR-adapted JCV. The suppression of JCV propagation by 3-AB was also examined using JCI cells, which are a carrier culture producing continuously high JCV titers. The results indicated that PARP-1 inhibitors, such as 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), suppress JCV replication and propagation significantly in vitro, as judged by DNA replication assay, hemagglutination, and real-time PCR analysis. It has been also shown that 3-AB reduced PARP-1 activity in IMR-32 cells. According to the results of the MTT assay, the enzyme activity of 3-AB-treated cells was slightly lower than that of DMSO-treated cells. However, the significant suppression of JCV propagation is not related to the slight decrease in cell growth. To our knowledge, this is the first report that PARP-1 inhibitor suppresses the replication of JCV significantly in neuroblastoma cell lines via the reduction of PARP-1 activity. Thus, PARP-1 inhibitors also may be a novel therapeutic drug for PML. J. Med. Virol. 85:132-137, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Deshmukh D.K.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Deb M.K.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Suzuki Y.,Kobe Institute of Health | Kouvarakis G.N.,University of Crete
Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health | Year: 2013

Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected at Raipur, India, during the period of October 2008 to September 2009, using eight-stage cascade impactor-type aerosol sampler at a flow rate of 28. 3 l/min. The results give information about the mass concentrations, seasonal variations, and sources of water-soluble inorganic species viz. Na+, NH4 +, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3 -, and SO4 2- in both PM2. 5-10 (coarse) and PM2. 5 (fine) fractions. Annual mean of mass concentrations of PM2. 5-10 and PM2. 5 aerosols were monitored to be 200. 7 ± 55. 1 and 185. 9 ± 66. 9 μg/m3, respectively. The annual mean concentrations of the inorganic components were monitored to be 5. 4 ± 2. 4, 6. 2 ± 4. 7, 5. 3 ± 1. 8, 3. 2 ± 0. 46, 40. 8 ± 7. 9, 9. 2 ± 3. 8, 21. 6 ± 5. 5, and 17. 9 ± 4. 0 μg/m3 in PM2. 5-10 aerosols and 4. 1 ± 2. 1, 13. 4 ± 4. 2, 7. 7 ± 2. 0, 1. 7 ± 0. 4, 18. 7 ± 5. 4, 9. 7 ± 3. 1, 13. 4 ± 5. 7, and 36. 8 ± 10. 0 μg/m3, respectively, in PM2. 5 aerosols, for the above ions. The concentration of Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ were higher in spring and summer. The seasonal variation of secondary components NH4 +, NO3 -, and SO4 2- were similar; that means high concentration in winter and low concentration in fall. The results obtained from factor analysis suggested the presence of three main components/sources in the coarse and fine modes namely regional pollution, airborne road dust, and traffic emissions, which contributed 94. 0% and 83. 2% of the total variance of the system respectively for the PM2. 5-10 and PM2. 5 aerosols data set. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Ueda Y.,Kobe Institute of Health | Itoh M.,Hyogo Health Service Association
Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan | Year: 2016

In this experiment, 351 pesticides and 441 different organic compounds were analyzed by GC/MS, and a database of retention time, retention index, monoisotopic mass, two selected ions, molecular formula, and CAS numbers was created. The database includes compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers and hydrocarbons with unpleasant odors. This database is expected to be useful for health crisis management in the future.

Beppu M.,Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital | Kawamoto M.,Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital | Nukuzuma S.,Kobe Institute of Health | Kohara N.,Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital
Internal Medicine | Year: 2012

We describe a case of a 67-year-old man with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with progressive left hemiplegia. Although the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the JC virus was negative, a brain biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The tapering of prednisone and the use of cidofovir could not arrest the disease progression. Administration of mefloquine stopped the extension of the lesion, and resulted in obvious clinical improvement. The CSF nested PCR for the JC virus also became negative. This widely used drug should be tried for the treatment of non-HIV PML. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine.

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