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Chūō-ku, Japan

Maeda S.,Research Institute of Tuberculosis | Wada T.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Iwamoto T.,Kobe Institute of Health | Murase Y.,Research Institute of Tuberculosis | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2010

To estimate the current population genetic structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Japan, phylogenetic traits were analysed for 237 Beijing family strains isolated from tuberculosis patients throughout the country. Unlike previous reports from other countries, the ancient Beijing sublineage was predominant throughout Japan. Clustering analysis based on JATA-VNTR (Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association variable numbers of tandem repeats), a specialised set of VNTR for the discrimination of Japanese M. tuberculosis strains, revealed high similarity of the modern Beijing sublineage strains, irrespective of their geographic origin. JATA-VNTR might be useful for the phylogenetic classification in populations where ancient Beijing strains are frequently isolated. © 2010 The Union. Source

Yoshida S.,Clinical Research Center | Tsuyuguchi K.,Clinical Research Center | Suzuki K.,National Hospital Organization Kinki chuo Chest Medical Center | Tomita M.,Kinki chuo Chest Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to genetically analyse Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus (hereafter M. abscessus) and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii (hereafter M. bolletii) isolates from six different regions of Japan and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates. Subspeciation of 143 clinical isolates of M. abscessus group was done by comparative sequence analysis of the rpoB and hsp65 genes and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Genetic analysis led to the identification of 90 M. abscessus (62.9%) and 53 M. bolletii (37.1%; comprising 50 'M. massiliense' and 3 'M. bolletii' in the old nomenclature). No significant differences were found between the M. abscessus and M. bolletii isolates in any characteristics. Susceptibility to clarithromycin and linezolid for M. bolletii isolates was significantly higher than that for M. abscessus (P < 0.05). Moreover, the results demonstrated that 82 M. abscessus isolates with T28 sequevar were resistant to clarithromycin owing to the expression of erm(41), which was induced by clarithromycin, whilst 8 isolates with C28 sequevar were susceptible. Acquired clarithromycin resistance in 'M. bolletii' isolates was significantly associated with previous Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) treatment compared with that of M. abscessus isolates; however, intrinsic inducible susceptibility of M. abscessus isolates was not associated with MAC treatment. However, acquired resistance to clarithromycin by mutation in the rrl gene encoding 23S rRNA did not occur in 14 of 18 resistant isolates. Strains with acquired resistance to clarithromycin and mutation in rrl consisted of two M. bolletii (one 'M. massiliense' and one 'M. bolletii') and two M. abscessus T28 sequevar. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. Source

Nukuzuma S.,Kobe Institute of Health | Kameoka M.,Kobe University | Sugiura S.,Nara Medical University | Nakamichi K.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2013

The incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has increased due to the AIDS pandemic, hematological malignancies, and immunosuppressive therapies. Recently, the number of cases of monoclonal antibody-associated PML has increased in patients treated with immunomodulatory drugs such as natalizumab. However, no common consensus regarding PML therapy has been reached in clinical studies. In order to examine the suppression of JC virus (JCV) replication by 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), a representative PARP-1 inhibitor, a DNA replication assay was carried out using the neuroblastoma cell line IMR-32 and IMR-adapted JCV. The suppression of JCV propagation by 3-AB was also examined using JCI cells, which are a carrier culture producing continuously high JCV titers. The results indicated that PARP-1 inhibitors, such as 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), suppress JCV replication and propagation significantly in vitro, as judged by DNA replication assay, hemagglutination, and real-time PCR analysis. It has been also shown that 3-AB reduced PARP-1 activity in IMR-32 cells. According to the results of the MTT assay, the enzyme activity of 3-AB-treated cells was slightly lower than that of DMSO-treated cells. However, the significant suppression of JCV propagation is not related to the slight decrease in cell growth. To our knowledge, this is the first report that PARP-1 inhibitor suppresses the replication of JCV significantly in neuroblastoma cell lines via the reduction of PARP-1 activity. Thus, PARP-1 inhibitors also may be a novel therapeutic drug for PML. J. Med. Virol. 85:132-137, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Sugiura Y.,Kobe Institute of Health | Hironaga M.,Hironaga Dermatology Clinic
Medical Mycology | Year: 2010

We report a rare case of onychomycosis due to Arthrographis kalrae, and describe an attempt to elucidate the source of the infection by fungal isolation and PCR-based methods for detection of A. kalrae. The patient was a 63-year-old Japanese man, whose fingernails, excluding the right index finger, were markedly dystrophic. Microscopic examination of his fingernails disclosed hyaline hyphae and arthroconidia. The causal agent was identified as A. kalrae based on morphological characteristics and ITS region sequencing. The fungus was susceptible in vitro to terbinafine, itraconazole, and miconazole. A therapeutic trial of oral terbinafine, 125 mg/day and topical 1% miconazole for seven months brought about a complete cure of the ungual lesion. We found that A. kalrae could be detected at 1.1×104 CFU/g (92.4% incidence) in soil from the patient's garden. Furthermore, varying CFUs of A. kalrae were recovered in 61% of the samples obtained from crop field soils, commercially available soils or allied products for gardening. Since the patient was working with soil that harbored A. kalrae, the possibility of acquiring the infection from this source should not be excluded. © 2010 ISHAM. Source

Wada T.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Iwamoto T.,Kobe Institute of Health | Hase A.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Maeda S.,The Research Institute of Tuberculosis
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

The Beijing family is an endemic lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in eastern Asia. In Japan, five evolutionarily sequential sublineages composing the lineage have predominated. Comparative genomic sequencing based on a microarray technique was conducted for five representative strains of those respective sublineages. Results revealed approximately 200 point mutations specific to each strain. Subsequently, to investigate the genetic diversity of each sublineage, we analysed the phylogenetic divergence of 103 domestic strains belonging to them using genetic markers derived from the mutation information. Results show that the five sublineages have comprised smaller lineages which had diverged at various points. The smaller sub-sublineages have emerged with respective bottlenecks, which are reflected in the excessive monophyletic evolution of the species. Our data provide necessary information to grasp a comprehensive picture of genetic diversity of the lineage constructed in its evolution. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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