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Ihara M.,Kobe Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation | Okamoto Y.,Kyoto University | Hase Y.,Kyoto University | Takahashi R.,Kyoto University
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is more suitable than the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for the detection of vascular cognitive impairment. In this study, we performed a correlation analysis of MoCA/MMSE scores with daily physical activity in patients with subcortical ischemic white matter changes. Methods: Ten patients (average 75.9 ± 9.1 years old) with extensive leukoaraiosis detected on magnetic resonance imaging underwent cognitive testing, including the MMSE and the Japanese version of the MoCA (MoCA-J). Physical activity was monitored with the Kenz Lifecorder EX device (Suzuken, Nagoya, Japan) to assess daily physical activity in terms of caloric expenditure, motor activity, number of steps, and walking distance for 6 months. Correlations of individual physical activity with total and subscale scores of MMSE/MoCA-J or 6-month interval change of MoCA-J scores were assessed. Results: The total or subscale scores of the MMSE did not correlate with any parameters of physical activity. However, the mean number of steps and walking distance significantly correlated with the total MoCA-J scores (r =.67 and.64, respectively) and its visuospatial/executive subscores (r =.66 and.66, respectively). The mean interval change of MoCA-J was +.6; those who improved number of steps (n = 4; 80.5 ± 3.0 years of age) had significantly preserved MoCA-J scores compared to those who did not (n = 6; 73.0 ± 11.6 years of age; +2.0 versus -.3; P =.016). Conclusions: These results suggest that MoCA is useful to detect a biologically determined specific relationship between physical activity and executive function. In addition, physical exercise, such as walking, may help enhance cognitive function in patients with vascular cognitive impairment of subcortical origin. © 2013 by National Stroke Association. Source

Yokoi H.,Kyoto University | Yokoi H.,Kobe Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation | Kasahara M.,Kyoto University | Kasahara M.,Kobe Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation | And 16 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2012

Long-term peritoneal dialysis induces peritoneal fibrosis with submesothelial fibrotic tissue. Although angiogenesis and inflammatory mediators are involved in peritoneal fibrosis, precise molecular mechanisms are undefined. To study this, we used microarray analysis and compared gene expression profiles of the peritoneum in control and chlorhexidine gluconate (CG)-induced peritoneal fibrosis mice. One of the 43 highly upregulated genes was pleiotrophin, a midkine family member, the expression of which was also upregulated by the solution used to treat mice by peritoneal dialysis. This growth factor was found in fibroblasts and mesothelial cells within the underlying submesothelial compact zones of mice, and in human peritoneal biopsy samples and peritoneal dialysate effluent. Recombinant pleiotrophin stimulated mitogenesis and migration of mouse mesothelial cells in culture. We found that in wild-type mice, CG treatment increased peritoneal permeability (measured by equilibration), increased mRNA expression of TGF-Β1, connective tissue growth factor and fibronectin, TNF-α and IL-1Β expression, and resulted in infiltration of CD3-positive T cells, and caused a high number of Ki-67-positive proliferating cells. All of these parameters were decreased in peritoneal tissues of CG-treated pleiotrophin-knockout mice. Thus, an upregulation of pleiotrophin appears to play a role in fibrosis and inflammation during peritoneal injury. © 2012 International Society of Nephrology. Source

Tsukada S.,Tokai University | Kwon S.-M.,Pusan National University | Matsuda T.,Kobe Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation | Jung S.-Y.,Pusan National University | And 5 more authors.
Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2013

Introduction. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a critical role in restoration of ischemic diseases. However, the actual status of EPC development and the mechanisms of EPC dysfunctions in patients with various ischemic diseases remain unknown. Methods. To investigate the detailed function of EPCs in experimental murine models, we have established an EPC colony forming assay (EPC-CFA) in murine EPCs. The abilities of murine EPCs in differentiation, adhesive capacity, proliferative potency, and transplantation in vitro and in vivo were then examined. Results: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs), bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) or bone marrow c-Kit+/Sca- 1+lineage negative (BM-KSL) cells differentiated into two types of EPC colony forming units (EPC-CFUs), large sized EPC (large-EPC)-CFUs and small sized EPC (small-EPC)-CFUs. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that both EPC-CFU-derived cells expressed eNOS, Flk-1 and VE-cadherin, markers of endothelial cells (ECs), although the small-EPCs derived from small-EPC-CFU were higher in number and showed more immature features (higher population of KSL cells). Functionally, the large-EPCs derived from large-EPC-CFU had higher adhesive capacity but lower proliferative potency than small-EPCs, showing improved tubular forming capacity and incorporation potency into primary EC-derived tube formation. Importantly, hindlimb ischemia increased the frequencies of large-EPC-CFUs differentiated from PB-MNCs and bone marrow. Actually, transplantation of large-EPCs into ischemic hindlimb enhanced neovascularization in hindlimb ischemia model, although small-EPCs or murine ECs did not, suggesting that large-EPC-CFUs might play an important role in restoration of ischemic diseases. Conclusions: We demonstrated, using a murine ischemia model, that the EPC-CFA could be a useful way to investigate the differentiation levels of murine EPCs, further providing a crucial clue that large-EPC-CFU status may be more functional or effective EPCs to promote neovascularization. © 2013 Tsukada et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Kuroda T.,Kobe University | Kuroda T.,Kobe Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation | Matsumoto T.,Kobe University | Matsumoto T.,Kobe Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation | And 10 more authors.
Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

Background. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is considered a promising choice for the treatment of cartilage defects. However, the application of ACI to osteoarthritic patients is, in general, contraindicated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of three- dimensionallystructured ACI (3D-ACI; CaReS) in a rat model of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. OA-like degenerative changes in the articular cartilage were created by transecting the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLT) in athymic nude rats. Two weeks later, CaReS was transplanted at the cartilage injury sites created by micro-drilling in the patella groove (Chondrocyte-implanted (CI) group: CaReS collagen with human chondrocytes; Collagen group: CaReS collagen without cells; and Sham group: sham operation; n = 15/group). Results. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated the expression of human-specific type 2 collagen and Sry-type high-mobility-group box 9 (SOX9) in the CI group-not in the other groups-throughout the study period. Double immunohistochemistry for human-specific type 2 collagen and human leukocyte antigen-abacavir (HLA-ABC) at week 4 showed positive staining in the CI group only. Macroscopic assessment showed better repair at the cartilage defect sites in the CI group, compared to the other groups. Histological assessment with toluidine blue staining showed that the thickness of the articular cartilage and semi-quantitative histological scores were higher in the CI group than in the other groups up to week 20. Conclusions. We demonstrate, for the first time, that 3D-ACI is effective in repairing cartilage defects in a rat model of ACLT-induced OA. © 2011 Informa Healthcare. Source

Mifune Y.,Kobe Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation | Mifune Y.,Kobe University | Matsumoto T.,Kobe Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation | Matsumoto T.,Kobe University | And 14 more authors.
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2013

Recent reports indicated that human isolated CD271+ bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) have a greater expansion and potential for multipotent differentiation including chondrogenesis than classical plastic adherent (PA) BM-MSCs in vitro. Therefore, we set up a hypothesis that CD271+ MSCs may have a greater chondrogenic potential than PA-MSCs in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the superiority of CD271+ MSCs on chondrogenesis using in vitro expansion and pellet culture system and in vivo rat model of cartilage defect when compared to PA-MSCs. In the in vitro study, CD271+ MSCs showed higher expansion potential and produced larger pellets with higher expressions of chondrogenic genes when compared to the control groups. During the culture, CD271 expression decreased, which resulted in decreased chondrogenesis. In the in vivo study, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated differentiated human chondrocytes identified as double-stained cells with human-specific collagen type 2 and human leukocyte antigen-ABC in CD271+ and PA groups. The number of double-stained cells was significantly higher in the CD271+ group than PA group. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of tissue RNA isolated from the chondral defect site for human-specific chondrogenic markers demonstrated a significantly higher expression in CD271+ group than PA group. Macroscopic examination of chondral defect sites at week 8 revealed glossy white and well-integrated repaired tissues in the CD271+ and PA groups, but not in the PBS group. The average histological score in the CD271+ group was significantly greater than in the other groups. Apoptosis analysis at the cell transplanted site with TUNEL staining showed that the CD271+ group had significantly fewer apoptotic chondrocytes compared with the PA group. These results indicate that CD271+ MSCs have a greater chondrogenic potential than PA-MSCs in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp. Source

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