TNM-7th edition 2009 (UICC/AJCC) and Japanese Classification 2010 in Gastric Cancer. Towards simplicity and standardisation in the management of gastric cancer [TNM 7.a edición 2009 (UICC/AJCC) y Clasificación Japonesa 2010 en Cáncer Gástrico. Hacia la simplicidad y estandarización en el manejo del cáncer gástrico]
Rodriguez Santiago J.M.,Hospital Universitari Mutua Of Terrassa |
Sasako M.,Kobe College |
Osorio J.,Hospital Universitari Mutua Of Terrassa
Cirugia Espanola | Year: 2011
The 7th edition of the UICC/AJCC TNM, and a new revision of the Japanese Classification for Gastric Cancer and Treatment Guidelines (Japanese Gastric Cancer Association) have been available since the beginning of 2010. One of the most important changes consists on the redefining and simplification of type D1/D2 lymphadenectomy depending on the type of gastrectomy performed (previously it depended on the location of the primary tumour), and the adoption of numeric criteria of TNM-7th Edition to evaluate the level of lymph node involvement (before, according to the anatomical location of the groups as regards the primary tumour). These changes attempt to make therapeutic management easier and a more uniform comparison of results between countries. The importance of these modifications in both systems justifies this exhaustive analysis and update of the new concepts for a correct management of gastric cancer. © 2010 AEC.
Kato S.,Kobe College |
Michihira M.,Kobe College
2010 International Power Electronics Conference - ECCE Asia -, IPEC 2010 | Year: 2010
Power generation characteristics of two generator systems consisting of a permanent magnet synchronous generator and diode bridge rectifiers are discussed in this paper. One of the discussed systems has three-phase stator windings, and the other has two sets of three-phase (six-phase) stator windings to reduce pulsation in the electromagnetic torque and DC current. Experimental results reveal that the power generation efficiency of the system having six-phase stator windings is higher than that of the system having three-phase stator windings for a light load. The maximum power generation efficiency of the system having six-phase stator windings is almost the same as that of the system having three-phase stator windings. © 2010 IEEE.
Ohji M.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology |
Harino H.,Kobe College |
Arai T.,University of Tokyo
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2010
In order to examine the accumulation pattern of organotin compounds (OTs) in relation to the migration of diadromous fish, the concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds and their derivatives were determined in the liver tissues of both sea-run (anadromous) and freshwater-resident (nonanadromous) types of the brown trout Salmo trutta. Ontogenic changes in the otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along the life history transect to discriminate the migration types. The sea-run and freshwater-resident life history styles of S. trutta were found to coexist sympatrically based on the otolith Sr:Ca ratio. The otolith Sr:Ca ratio of sea-run S. trutta fluctuated strongly along the life history transect in accordance with the migration pattern between sea and freshwater. In contrast, the Sr:Ca ratios of freshwater-resident fish remained at constantly low levels throughout the otolith. There were generally no significant correlations between TBT and TPT accumulation and various biological characteristics such as total length (TL), body weight (BW) and sex. It is noteworthy that the TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run S. trutta were significantly higher than in freshwater-resident individuals, although they are intraspecies. These results suggest that the sea-run S. trutta has a higher ecological risk of TBT and TPT exposure than the freshwater residents during their life history. © 2010 Inter-Research.
Tsuji M.,Tokushima University |
Yokoigawa K.,Kobe College
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2012
We examined the attachment of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 to abiotic surfaces of cooking utensils. When the cell suspension in 0.85% NaCl (about 100 cells/mL, 10 mL) was contacted with various abiotic surfaces (square pieces, 25 cm 2) at 25 °C for 20 min, the number of attached cells varied depending on the types of abiotic materials. The pathogen well attached to stainless steel (about 50 cells/25 cm 2), pure titanium (35 to 45 cells/25 cm 2), and glass (about 20 cells/25 cm 2), but little attached to aluminum foil and plastics, irrespective of strains used. Fewer cells (below 10 cells/25 cm 2) attached to stainless steel, pure titanium, and glass surfaces conditioned with aseptically sliced beef (sirloin) and autoclaved beef tallow at 25 °C for 20 min, but bovine serum albumin did not reduce the number of attached cells. The cells grown at 15 °C to the stationary phase (OD660 = about 2.8) less attached to the abiotic surfaces than those grown at 25 °C and 37 °C. When we pretreated the cells at 37 °C for 2 h with 50 μM N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (HHL), the number of cells attached to stainless steel was reduced by 70%. The number of cells attached to cooking utensils seemed to change depending on types of abiotic materials, adhesion of beef tallow to abiotic surfaces, growth temperature of the pathogen, and HHL-producing bacteria. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists ®.
Kimura M.,Kobe College
Shinrigaku Kenkyu | Year: 2015
How do people inferentially evaluate others' levels of intimacy with friends? We examined the inferential evaluation of intimacy based on the observation of interpersonal communication. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 41) responded to questions after observing conversations between friends. Results indicated that participants inferentially evaluated not only goodness of communication, but also intimacy between friends, using an expressivity heuristic approach. In Experiment 2, we investigated how inferential evaluation of intimacy was affected by prior information about relationships and by individual differences in face-to-face interactional ability. Participants (N = 64) were divided into prior- and no-prior-information groups and all performed the same task as in Experiment 1. Additionally, their interactional ability was assessed. In the prior-information group, individual differences had no effect on inferential evaluation of intimacy. On the other hand, in the no-prior-information group, face-to-face interactional ability partially influenced evaluations of intimacy. Finally, we discuss the fact that to understand one's social environment, it is important to observe others' interpersonal communications.
Eguchi S.,Kobe College |
Harino H.,Kobe College |
Yamamoto Y.,Kobe College
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2010
The concentrations of organotin compounds in the aquatic environment of Maizuru Bay and their spatial distribution are discussed. The concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) compounds in water samples ranged from 0.001 to 0.002 μg l -1, and monobutyltin compounds were the dominant species among the butyltin compounds. TBT concentrations in Maizuru Bay are low compared with other coastal waters of Japan. Drastic differences in TBT concentrations were not observed among the Maizuru Bay sites. Phenyltin compounds were not detected in the water samples. Concentrations of TBT and triphenyltin (TPT) in sediment from Maizuru Bay ranged, respectively, from 0.9 to 11 μg kg -1, from 0.2 to 17 μg kg -1 dry weight (dw). TBT concentrations in Maizuru Bay were lower than those in other coastal areas of Japan. TPT concentrations were greater than TBT concentrations in the fishing port. The concentrations of TBT and TPT in blue mussels (M. galloprovincialis) from Maizuru Bay were in the range of 2.4 to 9.3 μg kg -1 and 0.2-13 μg kg -1 wet weight (ww), respectively. A tolerable average residue level (TARL) was estimated at 74.8 μg kg -1 from a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.25 bis(tributyltin)oxide μg kg -1 body weight day -1. TBT concentrations detected in blue mussel samples were lower than the TARL values. The acceptable concentration of TPT, which were calculated using acceptable daily intake instead of TDI, was 127 μg kg -1. Concentrations of TPT in blue mussel samples were also lower than the TARL. TBT compounds in blue mussel samples were at similar levels among the various sampling sites, indicating that TBT is not currently being used in ship hull paints; the ratios of degradation products of TBT and TPT were greater than those of the parent compounds. Concentrations of alternative biocides in water samples were also investigated in the bay. Although Sea-Nine 211, M1, and Pyrithiones were not detected, Diuron and Irgarol 1051 were detected at 0.010-0.257 and at 0.002-0.018 μg l -1, respectively. Concentrations of Diuron were great in the shipping route and near the shipyard, whereas the concentration of Irgarol 1051 was great at the fishing port. Concentrations of Diuron and Irgarol 1051 in sediment from Maizuru Bay ranged, respectively, from <0.08 to 12, from <0.08 to 9.8 μg kg -1 dw, respectively. Despite being a semi-enclosed bay, we found that sediment in Maizuru Bay is not contaminated by alternative biocides to the degree found in other coastal areas. Copper concentrations of sediment were at ordinary levels, and those of blue mussels were slightly lower than those reported previously in other coastal areas of Japan. In both the sediment and blue mussels, there was no correlation between the presence of copper and antifouling biocides. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Takaoka M.,Kobe College |
Norback D.,Uppsala University
Indoor and Built Environment | Year: 2011
A study was undertaken to determine the association between the home environment along with the respiratory and allergy symptoms reported among female university students in Japan (N =153). A multiple logistic regression was applied for the determination and the study was controlled based on the age of the students, whether the student smokes and history of asthma/allergy suffering in parents. The characteristics of the population were: 15.7% are diagnosed asthma, 56.9% suffered pollen allergy, 15.7% cat allergy, 11.1% dog allergy, 25.0% wheeze in breathing, 24.2% suffered daytime breathlessness and 9.3% suffered nocturnal attacks of breathlessness. Evaluated characteristics were: 41.2% had a pet at home, 21.6% environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 20.9% current dampness or moulds, 6.6% recent indoor painting, 7.2% new floor material, and 56.2% window condensation at home in winter. Wheeze was more common in concrete houses (OR = 3.33; p<0.05) and homes with water leakage and moulds infestation in the last 5 years (OR = 3.75; p<0.05), window condensation (OR=2.93; p<0.05) and ETS (OR=3.04; p<0.05). Nocturnal breathlessness was related to current building dampness (OR = 7.48; p<0.05), in particular to floor dampness. Furry pet allergy was more common in newer ( p<0.05) and newly painted homes (OR = 6.59; p<0.05). Airway infections were more common in homes with new floor material (OR=4.19; p<0.05). In conclusion, asthma, airway infections and allergies were common among female university students and related to home environmental exposures. © The Author(s), 2011.
Terashima M.,Kobe College |
Oe M.,Kobe College |
Ogura K.,Kobe College |
Matsumura S.,Kobe College
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011
A series of peptides, derived from an ACE inhibitory peptide (VTVNPYKWLP) found in our previous work, were synthesized. Their half maximal inhibition concentrations (IC 50) for ACE inhibition have been determined. The effect of amino acid sequence on ACE inhibition was discussed on the basis of IC 50 of the synthetic peptides, and the following characteristics of the ACE inhibitory peptide have been clarified. First, the active portion of this peptide for ACE inhibition is KW. Second, the amino acid sequences near this dipeptide (KW) have a strong effect on the inhibitory activity. Especially, the proline residue in the C-terminal end strongly enhanced ACE inhibition. It should be noted that the IC 50 value of KWLP (5.5 μM) is the same as the ACE inhibitory peptide (VTVNPYKWLP) and that the IC 50 value of KW is 7.8 μM. The stability and absorption efficiency in vivo would be significantly improved by shortening the peptide length from 10 amino acids to four amino acids or two amino acids. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Yokota H.,Kobe College |
Eguchi S.,Kobe College |
Nakai M.,Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute CERI
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2011
A global effort has been made to establish screening and testing methods that can identify the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on invertebrates. The purpose of our study was to develop an in vitro receptor binding assay for ecdysone receptor (EcR) in mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia). We cloned mysid shrimp EcR cDNA (2888 nucleotides) and ultraspiracle (USP) cDNA (2116 nucleotides), and determined that they encode predicted proteins of length 570 and 410 amino acids, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of these proteins shared 36-71% homology for EcR and 44-65% for USP with those of other arthropods. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mysid shrimp EcR was classified into an independent cluster together with the EcRs of another mysid species, Neomysis integer and the cluster diverged early from those of the other taxonomic orders of crustaceans. We then expressed the ligand-binding domains (DEF regions) of mysid shrimp EcR (abEcRdef) and USP (abUSPdef) as glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion peptides in Escherichia coli. After purifying the fusion peptides by affinity chromatography and removing the GST labels, we subjected the peptides to a ligand-receptor binding assay. [ 3H]-ponasterone A did not bind to abEcRdef or abUSPdef peptides alone but bound strongly to the abEcRdef/abUSPdef mixture with dissociation constant (K d)=2.14nM. Competitive binding assays showed that the IC 50 values for ponasterone A, muristerone A, 20-hydroxyecdysone, and α-ecdysone were 1.2, 1.9, 35, and 1200nM, respectively. In contrast, the IC 50 values for two dibenzoylhydrazine ligands (tebufenozide and chromafenozide) were >1.0×10 5nM. The intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation values for the IC 50 values of 20-hydroxyecdysone were 14.7% (n=5) and 16.1% (n=8), respectively. Our results indicate that the binding assay with a mixture of abEcRdef and abUSPdef can be used to screen compounds with a broad range of binding affinities for crustacean EcRs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Terashima M.,Kobe College |
Watanabe R.,Kobe College |
Ueki M.,Kobe College |
Matsumura S.,Kobe College
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010
Antioxidant activities of various substances against peroxynitrite and peroxyl radical generated from 2,2′-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) were evaluated by the previously proposed method [Terashima, M., Nakatani, I., Harima, A., Nakamura, S., & Shiiba M. (2007). New method to evaluate water-soluble antioxidant activity based on protein structure change. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(1), 165-169] using myoglobin as a probe. Activities of several antioxidants against five different reactive oxygen species, DPPH, hypochlorite ion, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite, and peroxyl radical, were characterised comprehensively by 5-axe cobweb charts. For example, Trolox, ascorbic acid, and ferulic acid show similar activities against DPPH radicals (7-10 mM VC), the shapes of the 5-axe cobweb charts are different from each others. This clear-cut expression would be useful to predict probable physiological effects of various antioxidants and to compare quality of antioxidants contained in food materials and food products. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.