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Soga Y.,Kobe City Public Health Center
[Nihon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health | Year: 2013

Appropriate lifestyle modifications through health guidance and other methods are known to be effective in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. Furthermore, early intervention is key. To examine the association between daily lifestyle and the risk of metabolic syndrome among young adults in Japan, we analyzed data from the Kobe City Young Adult Health Examination. We examined 4,912 adults aged 30 to 39 years to identify the association between daily lifestyle and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Daily lifestyle was assessed from 11 lifestyle-related items in the questionnaire administered during the health exam. The Standard Health Exam and Guidance Program by the Ministry of Health and Labor was used to determine the risks of abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Having a risk related to metabolic syndrome was defined as having a risk of abdominal obesity combined with a risk of hypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia. We also evaluated the stages of behavioral change in those who possessed a risk of metabolic syndrome, as well as their willingness to receive health guidance. Eating quickly had a significantly greater association with-risk of metabolic syndrome, for both sexes, than eating slowly or at a normal pace. For women, smoking, skipping breakfast more than three days a week, and eating supper within two hours before going to bed for more than three days a week were associated with risk of metabolic syndrome. A multiple regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast (P < 0.01), eating quickly (P < 0.01), and having a late-night supper (P < 0.01) were independently associated with risk. Of those who did have a risk of metabolic syndrome, 11.7% were in the pre-contemplative/unaware stage of behavior change, and 54.8% were willing to receive health guidance. Our study showed that among adults in their thirties in Kobe, irregular eating habits seemed to be associated with risk of metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, their intention to/awareness of the need to change their behavior and their willingness to receive health guidance were rather strong. Thus, for the "Tokutei kenshin (specific national health checkup system)" to achieve its objective of preventing lifestyle-related diseases more effectively than at present, the target population of the Tokutei kenshin must be shifted to a more focused age group in their thirties. Source

Soga Y.,Kobe City Public Health Center
[Nihon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health | Year: 2012

To examine the applicability of data on polio virus detection in stool by the Pathogen Surveillance System of Japan (PSSJ) for the evaluation of polio virus retention status in a regional community after oral polio vaccination (OPV). (1) Data for the city of Kobe (part of the PSSJ data): Cases of polio virus detection in stool reported to Kobe City Public Health Center from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2010 were examined regarding time duration from vaccination to detection as well as age and gender. (2) PSSJ data: Cases of polio virus detection in stool reported to PSSJ from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010 were examined regarding the serological types of the virus as well as age and gender. A logistic regression analysis was used to derive odds ratios for the relationship between age and serological type of polio virus in stool. Thirty-one cases (33 stool samples) were identified in the Kobe city data. Of these, 96.8% were in children two years old or younger and 54.8% were girls. The time duration between vaccination and detection of all the cases was within two months from vaccination. From the PSSJ data, 852 cases were identified. Of these, 97.3% were two years old or younger and 54.6% were girls. The proportion of serological types was different by age group: for those under one year old, the type 1 virus accounted for 33.2%; type 2, 44.8%; and type 3, 22.0%. In the one year old or older age group, these types accounted for 22.8%, 27.6% and 49.6%, respectively. Notably, the type 3 virus was detected more for the older age group. (odds ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 2.5-4.6). The duration before detection and the serological types of polio virus in stool from the PSSJ and Kobe City data are consistent with the results of the prior studies that have evaluated the shedding of polio virus in stool after the administration of OPV. Since the PSSJ data are collected from a relatively wide range of samples, we conclude that the PSSJ data accurately represent polio virus retention status in a regional community after OPV. The current situation of polio virus shedding in stool cannot be ignored, and further consideration needs to be given to improving the accuracy of the PSSJ data, because Japan is to switch over to inactive polio vaccines in the near future. Source

Fujiyama R.,Kobe City Public Health Center | Fujiyama R.,Hyogo College of Medicine | Higuchi J.,Kobe City Public Health Center | Shirai C.,Kobe City Public Health Center | And 7 more authors.
Kekkaku | Year: 2011

Background: QuantiFERON® TB-Gold (QFT) has recently been developed as a new method for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) infection. To evaluate the usefulness of QFT. we analyzed the relationship between QFT and the closeness of contact with a source of infection, in comparison with that of the tuberculin skin test (TST). Methods: Male (n = 322) and female (n = 340) subjects (4-75 years old) who had contact with an index case received QFT and TST. The diagnostic criterion for TB infection w ith TST was defined as a test with an erythema diameter of ≥ 30mm. The closeness of contact with an index case was quantified in the "contact score." based on the information obtained with a questionnaire. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between the contact score and QFT-positive rate, while there was no such relationship for TST positivity. The odds ratios for positive QFT rate for the subjects in the 3rd and 4th quartile groups of contact score (taking the QFT-positive rate in the lowest score quartile as unity) were 3.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.07-10.76, p<0.05) and 7.62 (95% confidence interval: 2.60-22.37, p<0.01), respectively. These odds ratios were also significantly greater than unity after adjustment for age, sex, history of BCG vaccination and history of health carerelated jobs. There was a wide difference in the QFT-positive rates between the 2nd and 3rd quartiles of contact score (3.5% vs. 11.9%). The borderline value of the contact score between these two quartiles corresponded to 200. which could be a cutoff value for defining a high-risk contact. [Conclusion] The QFT-positive rates correlated well with closeness of contact, while TST showed a poor correlation. Thus. QFT is considered more useful than TST for diagnosing tuberculosis infection. Source

Nagasaka M.,Kobe University | Morioka I.,Kobe University | Yokota T.,Kobe University | Fujita K.,Kobe University | And 8 more authors.
Archives of Disease in Childhood | Year: 2015

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of short stature at 3 years of age in a Japanese cohort of late preterm infants who were born at 34-36 weeks' gestational age (GA). We compared these late preterm infants with term infants (37-41 weeks' GA), and evaluated the effect of birth weight on the incidence of short stature. Methods: A longitudinal population-based study of 26 970 neonates who were born between 34 weeks' and 41 weeks' GA in 2006-2008 was conducted in Kobe, Japan. Of these neonates, 1414 were late preterm and 25 556 were term infants. The late preterm infants were then divided into three subgroups based on birth weight as determined by Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts for GA at birth: large-for-GA (n=140), appropriate-for-GA (AGA, n=1083), and small-for-GA (SGA, n=191). The incidence of short stature at 3 years of age was calculated in the late preterm group and compared with that in the term group, and between the AGA and SGA groups with late preterm birth. Results: The incidence of short stature in the late preterm group was 2.9%, which was significantly higher than that in the term group (1.4%). Late preterm SGA infants developed short stature with a significantly higher (9.4%) incidence than that of late preterm AGA infants (2.1%). Conclusions: The incidence of short stature in 3-year-old children who were late preterm infants has a 2-fold higher risk than that in term infants. The risk of developing short stature is increased 4.5-fold if they are SGA. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Source

Watanabe M.,Okayama University | Watanabe M.,Kobe City Public Health Center | Wang D.-H.,Okayama University of Science | Ijichi A.,Kobe City Public Health Center | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2014

The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3) at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls).The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child’s late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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