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Galesburg, IL, United States

Knox College is a postgraduate theological college of the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It was founded in 1844 as part of a schism movement in the Church of Scotland following the Disruption of 1843. Knox is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church in Canada and confers doctoral degrees as a member school of the Toronto School of Theology. Wikipedia.

Jones-Rhoades M.W.,Knox College
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in eukaryotic cells. The past decade has seen an explosion in our understanding of the sets of miRNA genes encoded in the genomes in different species of plants and the mechanisms by which miRNAs interact with target RNAs. A subset of miRNA families (and their binding sites in target RNAs) are conserved between angiosperms and basal plants, suggesting they predate the divergence of existing lineages of plants. However, the majority of miRNA families expressed by any given plant species have a narrow phylogenetic distribution. As a group, these "young" miRNAs genes appear to be evolutionarily fluid and lack clearly understood biological function. The goal of this review is to summarize our understanding of the sets of miRNA genes and miRNA targets that exist in various plant species and to discuss hypotheses that explain the patterns of conservation and divergence observed among microRNAs in plants. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Chasman L.M.,Knox College
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2011

We establish an isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone (first nonzero eigenvalue) of the free plate of a given area, proving the ball is maximal. Given τ & 0, the free plate eigenvalues ω and eigenfunctions u are determined by the equation ΔΔu - τΔu = ωu together with certain natural boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are complicated but arise naturally from the plate Rayleigh quotient, which contains a Hessian squared term {pipe}D2u{pipe}2. We adapt Weinberger's method from the corresponding free membrane problem, taking the fundamental modes of the unit ball as trial functions. These solutions are a linear combination of Bessel and modified Bessel functions. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

McAndrew F.T.,Knox College
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2014

An interest in the affairs of same-sex others is especially strong among females, and women are more likely than men to use gossip in an aggressive, competitive manner. The goal of such gossip is to exclude competitors from a social group and damage the competitor's ability to maintain a reliable social network of her own. Timeworn assumptions about an affinity between females and negative gossip appear to be more than just a stereotype. Understanding the dynamics of competitive gossip may also give us insight into related social phenomena such as how people use social media such as Facebook. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Mulligan N.W.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Peterson D.J.,Knox College
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition | Year: 2015

Though retrieving information typically results in improved memory on a subsequent test (the testing effect), Peterson and Mulligan (2013) outlined the conditions under which retrieval practice results in poorer recall relative to restudy, a phenomenon dubbed the negative testing effect. The item-specific- relational account proposes that this occurs when retrieval disrupts interitem relational encoding despite enhancing item-specific information. Four experiments examined the negative testing effect, showing the following: (a) The basic phenomenon is replicable in free recall; (b) it extends to category-cued recall; (c) it converts to a positive testing effect when the final test is recognition, a test heavily reliant on item-specific information; (d) the negative testing effect in recall, robust in a pure list design, reverses to a positive testing effect in a mixed-list design; and (e) more generally, the present testing manipulation interacts with experimental design, such that an initially negative effect becomes positive or an initially positive effect becomes larger as the design changes from pure-list to mixed-list. The breadth of results fits well within the item-specific-relational framework and provides evidence against 2 alternative accounts. Finally, this research indicates that the testing effect shares important similarities with the generation effect and other similar memory phenomena. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Dittmar H.,University of Sussex | Bond R.,University of Sussex | Hurst M.,University of Sussex | Kasser T.,Knox College
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology | Year: 2014

This meta-analysis investigates the relationship between individuals' materialistic orientation and their personal well-being. Theoretical approaches in psychology agree that prioritizing money and associated aims is negatively associated with individuals' well-being but differ in their implications for whether this is invariably the case. To address these and other questions, we examined 753 effect sizes from 259 independent samples. Materialism was associated with significantly lower well-being for the most widely used, multifaceted measures (materialist values and beliefs, r = -.19, ρ = -.24; relative importance of materialist goals, r = -.16, ρ = -.21), more than for measures assessing emphasis on money alone (rs = -.08 to -.11, ρs = -.09 to -.14). The relationship also depended on type of well-being outcome, with largest effects for risky health and consumer behaviors and for negative self-appraisals (rs = -.28 to -.44, ρs = -.32 to -.53) and weakest effects for life satisfaction and negative affect (rs = -.13 to -.15, ρs = -.17 to -.18). Moderator analyses revealed that the strength of the effect depended on certain demographic factors (gender and age), on value context (study/work environments that support materialistic values and cultures that emphasize affective autonomy), and on cultural economic indicators (economic growth and wealth differentials). Mediation analyses suggested that the negative link may be explained by poor psychological need satisfaction. We discuss implications for the measurement of materialist values and the need for theoretical and empirical advances to explore underlying processes, which likely will require more experimental, longitudinal, and developmental research. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

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