Buder J.,Knowledge Media Research Center
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2011
Group awareness has become an important concept since it was introduced into the field of computer-supported collaborative learning. This paper discusses current trends and future directions in this research field. It is argued that the development and implementation of tools should be complemented by systematic explorations into the mechanisms that moderate the relationship between group awareness and learning. It is suggested that variations in tool design features are a starting point for furthering our understanding of the processes involved in group awareness. Based on the contributions in this special issue, eight areas for future empirical investigations are identified. The paper concludes with some theoretical considerations on the nature of group awareness. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Engelmann T.,Knowledge Media Research Center |
Hesse F.W.,Knowledge Media Research Center
International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning | Year: 2010
For collaboration in learning situations, it is important to know what the collaborators know. However, developing such knowledge is difficult, especially for newly formed groups participating in a computer-supported collaboration. The solution for this problem described in this paper is to provide to group members access to the knowledge structures and the information resources of their collaboration partners in the form of digital concept maps. In an empirical study, 20 triads having access to such maps and 20 triads collaborating without such maps are compared regarding their group performance in problem-solving tasks. Results showed that the triads being provided with such concept maps acquired more knowledge about the others' knowledge structures and information, focused while collaborating mainly on problem-relevant information, and therefore, solved the problems faster and more often correctly, compared to triads with no access to their collaborators' maps. © 2010 International Society of the Learning Sciences, Inc.; Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.
Engelmann T.,Knowledge Media Research Center
Journal of Educational Computing Research | Year: 2014
For effective communication and collaboration in learning situations, it is important to know what the collaboration partners know. However, the acquisition of this knowledge is difficult, especially in collaborating groups with spatially distributed members. One solution is the Knowledge and Information Awareness approach developed by Engelmann and colleagues. This approach provides spatially distributed collaborating group members digital visualizations of the knowledge and the information underlying the knowledge of their partners. The current article gives an overview regarding the empirical studies that have demonstrated the efficacy of the Knowledge and Information Awareness approach: A first set of experimental studies confirmed the effectiveness of this approach to foster both knowing what the collaborators know and knowing to which information they have access. A second set of experimental studies identified the underlying impact factors of the Knowledge and Information Awareness approach. The third set of experimental studies showed the potential of the approach to overcome arising collaboration barriers. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the limits of the approach and its applicability in real learning settings, such as in schools. © 2014, Baywood Publishing Co., Inc.
Wodzicki K.,Knowledge Media Research Center
Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking | Year: 2011
Groups who share information in computer-mediated settings often have to deal with the issue of anonymity. Previous research has shown that only people with a prosocial orientation--that is, those whose main interest is to add to the benefit of the group as a whole--are willing to share information in anonymous situations. The willingness to share information by those people with a proself orientation--that is, those who put more emphasis on their personal benefit--can be increased by providing photographs of the other group members. The information-sharing behavior of prosocials, however, suffers from such a deletion of anonymity. In an online experiment, we examined how information-sharing behavior of proselfs may be increased without negatively influencing the information-sharing behavior of prosocials in an online setting. It was shown that even proselfs share information if the group members are visualized in a homogeneous way, while prosocials' information-sharing behavior is not impaired by this visualization. In addition, the results suggest that people's perceived homogeneity of the online group, as well as the importance of the collective goal, are the underlying processes of this effect. These results have important practical implications for the design of online information-sharing settings.
Buder J.,Knowledge Media Research Center |
Schwind C.,Knowledge Media Research Center
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2012
This paper explores the potentials of recommender systems for learning from a psychological point of view. It is argued that main features of recommender systems (collective responsibility, collective intelligence, user control, guidance, personalization) fit very well to principles in the learning sciences. However, recommender systems should not be transferred from commercial to educational contexts on a one-to-one basis, but rather need adaptations in order to facilitate learning. Potential adaptations are discussed both with regard to learners as recipients of information and learners as producers of data. Moreover, it is distinguished between system-centered adaptations that enable proper functioning in educational contexts, and social adaptations that address typical information processing biases. Implications for the design of educational recommender systems and for research on educational recommender systems are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schwan S.,Knowledge Media Research Center |
Ildirar S.,Istanbul University
Psychological Science | Year: 2010
Although film, television, and video play an important role in modern societies, the extent to which the similarities of cinematographic images to natural, unmediated conditions of visual experience contribute to viewers' comprehension is largely an open question. To address this question, we compared 20 inexperienced adult viewers from southern Turkey with groups of medium- and high-experienced adult viewers from the same region. In individual sessions, each participant was shown a set of 14 film clips that included a number of perceptual discontinuities typical for film. The viewers' interpretations were recorded and analyzed. The findings show that it is not the similarity to conditions of natural perception but the presence of a familiar line of action that determines the comprehensibility of films for inexperienced viewers. In the absence of such a line of action, extended prior experience is required for appropriate interpretation of cinematographic images such as those we investigated in this study. © 2010 The Author(s).
Utz S.,Knowledge Media Research Center
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2014
How can social network sites (SNS) foster relationships when most status updates on SNS are mainly entertaining and not very intimate? This finding cannot be explained by classical social psychological theories such as social penetration theory which regard disclosure intimacy as the main driver of relational outcomes. By building on literature on the role of capitalization and humor in relationship formation and maintenance, this paper suggests two alternative paths from public self-disclosure to relational outcomes. Respondents judged the content and relational effects of own and friends' status updates as well as private conversations. In general, all types of messages were mainly positive and entertaining. The more intimate communication took place in private conversations; here, the classical link between disclosure intimacy and feeling connected still held. However, positive and entertaining self-disclosures also increased the feeling of connection, especially when reading friends' updates. Interestingly, interaction partners' responsiveness did not play a significant role, indicating that results from dyadic face-to-face interactions do not hold for public communication on social media. The study contributes to the development of a more differentiated model on the role of self-disclosure on SNS. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cress U.,Knowledge Media Research Center |
Held C.,Knowledge Media Research Center |
Kimmerle J.,App Media
Computers and Education | Year: 2013
Tag clouds generated in social tagging systems can capture the collective knowledge of communities. Using as a basis spreading activation theories, information foraging theory, and the co-evolution model of cognitive and social systems, we present here a model for an extended information scent, which proposes that both collective and individual knowledge have a significant influence on link selection, incidental learning, and information processing. Two experimental studies tested the applicability of the model to a situation in which individual knowledge and collective knowledge were contradictory to each other. The results of the first experiment showed that a higher individual strength of association between a target in demand and a tag led to a higher probability of selecting corresponding links, combined with less thorough information processing for non-corresponding links. But users also adapted their navigation behavior to the collective knowledge (strength of associations of tags) of the community and showed incidental learning during navigation, which resulted in a change of their individual strength of associations. The second experiment confirmed these results and showed, in addition, that the effects also occurred for indirect associations. Altogether, the results show that the extended information scent is an appropriate and fertile model for describing the interplay of individual knowledge and the collective knowledge of social tags. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moskaliuk J.,App Media |
Kimmerle J.,App Media |
Cress U.,Knowledge Media Research Center
Computers and Education | Year: 2012
Wikis as shared digital artifacts may enable users to participate in processes of knowledge building. To what extent and with which quality knowledge building can take place is assumed to depend on the interrelation between people's prior knowledge and the information available in a wiki. In two experimental studies we examined the impact on learning and knowledge building of the redundancy (Study 1) and polarity (Study 2) between participants' prior knowledge and information available in the wiki. Based on the co-evolution model of cognitive and social systems, external assimilation and accommodation were used as dependent variables to measure knowledge building. The results supported the hypotheses that a medium level of redundancy and a high level of polarity foster external accommodation processes. External assimilation was stimulated by low redundancy and a high level of polarity. Moreover, we found that individual learning was influenced by the degree of external assimilation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schwammlein E.,Knowledge Media Research Center |
Wodzicki K.,Knowledge Media Research Center
Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication | Year: 2012
This paper investigates how the type of community and personal goals affect self-presentation. In 3 online studies, we simulated the registration process in online communities, presenting either a common-bond or a common-identity community. Study 1 confirmed that members of the common-bond community presented themselves in an individualizing manner, while members of the common-identity community focused on characteristics shared among members of the community. Study 2 investigated underlying processes, showing that the goal to get in contact with other members was less salient in the common-identity than in the common-bond community. Study 3 demonstrated that community members actively manage their self-presentation in accordance with personal goals. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for research and profile design. © 2012 International Communication Association.