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Kahn R.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Sievenpiper J.L.,Knowledge Factor | Sievenpiper J.L.,McMaster University
Diabetes Care | Year: 2014

In the preceding point narrative, Drs. Bray and Popkin provide their opinion and review data that suggest to them that we need to reconsider the consumption of dietary sugar based on the growing concern of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the counterpoint narrative below, we argue that there is no clear or convincing evidence that any dietary or added sugar has a unique or detrimental impact relative to any other source of calories on the development of obesity or diabetes. Sugar is purely a highly palatable source of energy; because it has no other property that appears to contribute to our nutritional well-being, it is not an essential food for most of us. For those who wish to reduce energy consumption, ingesting less sugar is a good place to start. However, doing so does not automatically portend any clinical benefit. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

Knowledge Factor | Date: 2012-09-11

Software as a service (SAAS) services featuring software for providing learning and knowledge assessments, namely, software that interactively delivers learning content in a personalized and dynamic manner based in part on how the learner responds to previous content.

Knowledge Factor | Date: 2011-08-23

A services-oriented system structure for knowledge assessment and learning comprises a display device for displaying to a learner at a client terminal a plurality of multiple-choice questions and two-dimensional answers, an administration server adapted to administer one or more users of the system, a content management system server adapted to provide an interface for the one or more users to create and maintain a library of learning resources, a learning system server comprising a database of learning materials, wherein the plurality of multiple-choice questions and two-dimensional answers are stored in the database for selected delivery to the client terminal, and a registration and data analytics server adapted to create and maintain registration information about the learners.

A system for knowledge assessment and encouraging learning comprises transmitting to the a terminal a plurality of multiple choice questions and two-dimensional answers thereto, the answers including a plurality of full-confidence answers consisting of single-choice answers, a plurality of partial-confidence answers consisting of sets of multiple single-choice answers, and an unsure answer. The system further administers a confidence-based assessment (CBA) test that presents to the test subject the plurality of multiple choice questions directed to categorical topics, and the two-dimensional answers thereto, by which the test subject indicates both their substantive answer and the level of confidence category of their answer. The system compiles a knowledge profile from the scored CBA test, and encourages learning so that the user can address knowledge deficiencies as identified through the CBA test.

David Wang D.,University of Toronto | David Wang D.,Knowledge Factor | Sievenpiper J.L.,Knowledge Factor | Sievenpiper J.L.,McMaster University | And 29 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2014

Background: In the absence of consistent clinical evidence, concerns have been raised that fructose raises postprandial triglycerides. Purpose: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of fructose on postprandial triglycerides. Data sources: Relevant studies were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (through September 3, 2013). Data selection: Relevant clinical trials of ≥7-days were included in the analysis. Data extraction: Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data with disagreements reconciled by consensus. The Heyland Methodological Quality Score (MQS) assessed study quality. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method using random effects models and expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic). Data synthesis: Eligibility criteria were met by 14 isocaloric trials (n=290), in which fructose was exchanged isocalorically for other carbohydrate in the diet, and two hypercaloric trials (n=33), in which fructose supplemented the background diet with excess energy from high-dose fructose compared with the background dietalone (without the excess energy). There was no significant effect in the isocaloric trials (SMD: 0.14 [95% CI:-0.02, 0.30]) with evidence of considerable heterogeneity explained by a single trial. Hypercaloric trials, however, showed a significant postprandial triglyceride raising-effect of fructose (SMD: 0.65 [95% CI: 0.30, 1.01]). Limitations: Most of the available trials were small, short, and of poor quality. Interpretation of the isocaloric trials is complicated by the large influence of a single trial. Conclusions: Pooled analyses show that fructose in isocaloric exchange for other carbohydrate does not increase postprandial triglycerides, although an effect cannot be excluded under all conditions. Fructose providing excess energy does increase postprandial triglycerides. Larger, longer, and higher-quality trials are needed. Protocol registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01363791. © 2013 The Authors.

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