Knipling Bushland United States Livestock Insects Research Laboratory

Fredericksburg, TX, United States

Knipling Bushland United States Livestock Insects Research Laboratory

Fredericksburg, TX, United States
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Domingues L.N.,Louisiana State University | Guerrero F.D.,Knipling Bushland United States Livestock Insects Research Laboratory | Becker M.E.,Louisiana State University | Alison M.W.,Louisiana State University | Foil L.D.,Louisiana State University
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013

The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans, is an obligate blood-feeding parasite of cattle that causes significant economic impact in many countries. We investigated the resistance of a horn fly population from Louisiana/USA to endosulfan, a cyclodiene insecticide. Bioassays were performed in 2010 and 2011 in order to determine the resistance ratio of the population to endosulfan and a PCR assay was developed to detect the Rdl mutation which is the replacement of an alanine with a serine at the GABA receptor locus that has been associated with resistance to cyclodienes in other insect species. Endosulfan tags had provided 8 weeks of effective control in 2010 but only 1 week in 2011. After only one summer (June-September/2010) of exposure to the endosulfan tagged cattle, there was a significant increase in the resistance ratio for endosulfan in the fly population. Most flies surveyed by the PCR diagnostic assay were homozygous susceptible at the Rdl locus, the resistant (R) allele was mainly present in the heterozygous state and there was no difference in the frequency of the R allele between female and male flies. After the first year's exposure of the horn flies to the endosulfan tags, the frequency of the R allele increased significantly. However, after one year without endosulfan treatment (2011-2012), the frequency of the R allele significantly dropped. These results indicate that target site resistance was responsible, at least in part, for the resistance and that a fitness cost is possibly associated with the Rdl mutation. © 2013 .


Domingues L.N.,Louisiana State University | Guerrero F.D.,Knipling Bushland United States Livestock Insects Research Laboratory | Foil L.D.,Louisiana State University
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2014

The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L., 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae), is an important pest that causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry, but insecticide resistance in horn fly populations has made horn fly control increasingly difficult to achieve. In this study, we developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to simultaneously detect target site resistance to pyrethroids (kdr mutation), organophosphates (G262A acetylcholinesterase mutation), and cyclodienes (Rdl mutation) and used the new procedure to follow the progression of these three mutations after exposure to different insecticide pressure. We assayed flies collected at the Macon Ridge research station, Winnsboro, LA, from 2008 to 2012. The multiplex PCR showed robust results in all our assays. The kdr mutation remained at high frequencies during all years, even after 4 yr with no use of pyrethroids. The G262A acetylcholinesterase mutation fluctuated from 7.5 to 23.8% during the studied years, while the Rdl mutation was rare in 2008, 2009, and June 2010, and then significantly increased after the first use of endosulfan. The possibility of screening for all the known target site resistance mutations in a single PCR reaction makes the multiplex PCR a useful and affordable tool that can be used to help diagnose insecticide resistance. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.


Davey R.B.,Cattle Fever Tick Research Laboratory | Pound J.M.,Knipling Bushland United States Livestock Insects Research Laboratory | Klavons J.A.,Knipling Bushland United States Livestock Insects Research Laboratory | Lohmeyer K.H.,Knipling Bushland United States Livestock Insects Research Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2011

The therapeutic and persistent efficacy of a single subcutaneous injection of a long-acting formulation of moxidectin at a concentration of 1 mg/kg body weight was determined against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), along with the concentration-time blood sera profile in treated cattle. The therapeutic efficacy against ticks of all parasitic stages on cattle at the time of treatment was >99.9%, and the mean tick number, index of fecundity, engorgement weight, and egg mass weight of ticks recovered from treated animals were all significantly lower than ticks from untreated animals. The index of fecundity, engorgement weight of females, and egg mass weight of ticks recovered from treated animals infested at weekly (7-d) intervals between 14 and 63 d posttreatment were significantly lower than for ticks on untreated animals, whereas the number of ticks per animal recovered from treated cattle remained lower than that of untreated cattle for up to 49 d posttreatment. The percentage control remained >99% at weekly intervals between 14 and 49 d posttreatment, which is the minimum level of efficacy considered acceptable for use in the United States Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. The serum concentration of moxidectin in treated cattle increased to 25.6 ppb (parts per billion) within 1 d after treatment, and peaked at 47.3 ppb at 8 d posttreatment. Moxidectin sera levels remained above the estimated 100% threshold level for elimination of feeding ticks (5-8 ppb) for 44-53 d after treatment. The label claim of 50 d of prevention against reinfestation for the long-acting moxidectin formulation used in the study was supported by the efficacy and sera concentration data obtained. Based on these results, cattle could be treated at 63-d intervals with minimal risk of viable ticks detaching from treated animals. This treatment interval would be 4.5-fold longer than the presently required treatment interval of 14 d, thus leading to ≈ 75% reduction in gathering and handling costs of cattle incurred by producers. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.


Gross A.D.,Iowa State University | Gross A.D.,University of Florida | Temeyer K.B.,Knipling Bushland United States Livestock Insects Research Laboratory | Day T.A.,Iowa State University | And 3 more authors.
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2015

The southern cattle tick (. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) is a hematophagous external parasite that vectors the causative agents of bovine babesiosis or cattle tick fever, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, and anaplasmosis, Anaplasma marginale. The southern cattle tick is a threat to the livestock industry in many locations throughout the world. Control methods include the use of chemical acaricides including amitraz, a formamidine insecticide, which is proposed to activate octopamine receptors. Previous studies have identified a putative octopamine receptor from the southern cattle tick in Australia and the Americas. Furthermore, this putative octopamine receptor could play a role in acaricide resistance to amitraz. Recently, sequence data indicated that this putative octopamine receptor is probably a type-1 tyramine receptor (TAR1). In this study, the putative TAR1 was heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells, and the expressed receptor resulted in a 39-fold higher potency for tyramine compared to octopamine. Furthermore, the expressed receptor was strongly antagonized by yohimbine and cyproheptadine, and mildly antagonized by mianserin and phentolamine. Tolazoline and naphazoline had agonistic or modulatory activity against the expressed receptor, as did the amitraz metabolite, BTS-27271; however, this was only observed in the presence of tyramine. The southern cattle tick's tyramine receptor may serve as a target for the development of anti-parasitic compounds, in addition to being a likely target of formamidine insecticides. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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