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Anthracnose is one of the most important fungal diseases of cultivated blueberries. It mainly affects fruits and causes rotting of ripe fruit both before harvest and during storage. Infected blueberries become wrinkled, soft and covered with slimy orange conidial masses. In the years 2005 -2009 we collected 33 samples of symptomatic plants from high-bush blueberry plantations in the Ljubljana Wetland. Using standard morphological and molecular methods we identified Colletotrichum fioriniae as the causative agent of the disease. Successive isolations from naturally infected high-bush blueberry bushes revealed the presence of C. fioriniae during the entire growing season. It was consistently isolated from symptomatic as well as from symptomless tissues. We confirmed that the fungus overwinters in canes with dead tips and fruit spurs and also in symptomless canes and buds. Buds, particularly flower buds, appear to be the most important source of primary inoculum apart from canes with dead twigs and fruits spurs.

In Slovenia Carniolan honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica Pollman 1879) is an autochthonous and protected honeybee subspecies. Based on morphological characteristics A. m. carnica belongs to the southeast European group of honeybees and is the second most widely spread honeybee subspecies in the world. Slovenia is the origin country of A. m. carnica and its conservation is stipulated by law In the last few years more honeybees with yellow bands on the abdomen were seen in the population of A. m. carnica in Slovenia. These characteristics are the result of hybridization with other honeybee subspecies. Apis m. carnica is nowadays to a large extent influenced by beekeeping activities (trade with bee colonies and queens, migratory beekeeping) and also natural conditions and hybridization in the zones of natural hybridization. To find out the percentage of hybrid honeybees in the population of A. m. carnica in Slovenia, a morphological investigation based on the colour of bands on the worker abdomen was made. We found the highest percentages of honeybees with yellow bands in the West part of Slovenia near the border with Italia (Obalno Kraška and Goriška region) but also in the Koroška region. On average 5.6% honeybees in the population of A. m. carnica in Slovenia have yellow bands. Further hybridization of A. m. carnica with other honeybee subspecies could led to loss of morphological, ethological and genetic characteristics of A. m. carnica population in Slovenia.

Simcic M.,University of Ljubljana | Logar B.,Kmetijski Institute Slovenije
Acta Agriculturae Slovenica | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to analyse type traits in 330 Cika sires. Scoring system of Cika cattle includes measured, individual scored and composite scored traits. Individual scored traits are divided into two groups, autochthonousness and form. Three composite traits are autochthonousness, muscularity and form. Fixed part of the model was analysed by GLM procedure in SAS software package, which included the effect of the year and animal age on the scoring day as linear regression. On average, 14.6 months old sires were 117.1 cm high at withers. Immediately, at the end of the scoring procedure all sires were classified into Cika, Semi-Cika and Pinzgauer type, based on the height at withers and individual scored traits from the autochthonous group. This method of classification does not take into account the environmental effects. We found significant effects of the year of scoring and animal age on type traits and therefore on the classification into the type. Sires classification should be carried out after the type traits data evaluation and after the exclusion of environmental effects.

Titan P.,University of Ljubljana | Meglic V.,Kmetijski Institute Slovenije
Acta Agriculturae Slovenica | Year: 2011

Heterosis is commonly associated with the superiority of the first filial generation over the parental generation. From the economic point of view it is important that the superiority could be expressed as a higher productive potential of the variety. Given the slow growth of the average grain yield of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at global and national level, the use of hybrids for production of this economically important crop, is gaining the importance. The most important condition for hybrid seed production in common wheat is cross-pollination that can be achieved by induction of male sterility. In the past, different approaches for induction of male sterility in common wheat have been proposed, for example the use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS system) transferred from Triticum timopheevi Zhuk. Due to its complexity, the genetic approaches have never been exercised in the practice. Today the chemical hybridizing agents allow development of hybrid varieties that can top the yield of standard inbred varieties for more than twenty percent. Transgenic approaches represent the alternative to the chemical induction of male sterility. Hybrid wheat seed production is therefore technologically complex process that depends on the level of heterosis, hybrid seed yield per area unit and the market price of wheat.

Skrlep M.,Kmetijski Institute Slovenije | Candek-Potokar M.,Kmetijski Institute Slovenije | Sante-Lhoutellier V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gou P.,Technologia de los Alimentos
Italian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

Association between polymorphisms on PRKAG3 (Ile199Val) and CAST (Lys249Arg and Ser638Arg) genes and dry ham seasoning losses was studied. A total of 724 green hams (same pig crossbreed, same pig producer) were selected, genotyped (PCR-RFLP) and processed according to the rules of consortium for dry-cured ham Kraški pršut. Weight losses after each processing phase were recorded. We observed significant effect of interaction between gene polymorphism and dry ham producer on seasoning losses, indicating that the effect of studied genes differ in relation to manufacturing practice or product type, despite narrow consortium constraints. The analysis was thus made separately for each producer; in case of producer B, PRKAG3 affected salting, resting and overall losses (Val/Val higher than Ile/Ile or Ile/Val) but in case of producer A, the effect of PRKAG3 was significant only for salting losses (Ile/Val lower than Ile/Ile or Val/Val). Effects of CAST polymorphisms were significant only in case of producer A; CAST249 Arg/Arg hams showed the highest first salting, drying, and overall seasoning losses, whereas CAST638 Arg/Arg hams had the highest drying, ripening, and overall seasoning losses. In conclusion, PRKAG3 and CAST polymorphisms were associated with seasoning losses, important from economic viewpoint, but also for salt intake and product quality. © 2011 Licensee PAGEPress, Italy.

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