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Peshāwar, Pakistan

Sumangala V.,Mangalore University | Sumangala V.,SeQuent Scientific | Poojary B.,Mangalore University | Chidananda N.,Mangalore University | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

The reaction of 4-(methylsulfonyl)phenylacetohydrazide (3) with carbon disulfide and potassium hydroxide followed by hydrazine hydrate gave 4-amino-5-[4-(methylsulfonyl)benzyl]-4H-[1,2,4]triazole-3-thione (4). The resulting triazole was subjected to cyclocondensation reaction with different phenacyl bromides to afford 6-substituted-3-[4-(methylsulfonyl)benzyl]-7H-[1,2, 4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazines (5a-i). All structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, NMR, mass spectral studies and elemental analyses. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for their cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activity. Some of the derivatives have exhibited promising biological activity. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source


Thomas B.S.,Manipal University India | Rao S.K.,KMC
Kathmandu University Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Background Periodontal medicine defines a rapidly emerging branch of Periodontology focusing on establishing a strong relationship between periodontal health and systemic health. It is speculated that the major common dysregulation which links Periodontitis with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is being played by the mediators of immune inflammatory response. Objectives To determine whether there is any relationship between periodontal disease and Rheumatoid arthritis. Methods A total of 100 patients were included for the present study which was divided into two groups: one group (cases) included 50 patients attending the Department of Orthopedics, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal who were diagnosed of Rheumatoid arthritis. Another subject population included 50 patients as controls attending the Department of Oral Medicine, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal with age and gender matched with those of rheumatoid arthritis group. Specific measures for periodontitis included plaque index, gingival index, number of missing teeth, and radiographic alveolar bone loss scores. Measures of rheumatoid arthritis included health assessment questionaires, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Various periodontal parameters were compared between the cases and controls. Results The average alveolar bone loss was statistically more severe in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) group than in the controls although there were similar plaque index in both the groups. The gingival index was statistically higher in the RA group. The Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) levels of RA patients were also significantly associated with the severity of periodontal disease. Conclusion There was a significant association between Rheumatoid arthritis and Periodontitis which may be due to a common underlying deregulation of the inflammatory response in these individuals. Source


Jensen S.L.,Copenhagen University | Larsen F.H.,Copenhagen University | Bandsholm O.,KMC | Blennow A.,Copenhagen University
Biochemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2013

In this study a branching enzyme (BE, α-1,4→α-1,6 glycosyltransferase) was used to modify starch granules of different structures at high temperature and at extreme starch dry matter content (30-40%, w/v) to restrict temperature-induced swelling. As opposed to diluted systems, such conditions led to stabilization of the granular structure for low-phosphate starch types at the highest BE activity. Bright field/polarized light and scanning electron microscopy confirmed maintenance of granular structure. The product compared to the control had significantly increased degree of branching as identified by shorter branch-length of the α-1,4 chains assessed by chromatography and larger proportion of α-1,6 links to α-1,4 links as assessed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Size exclusion chromatography demonstrated the presence of uniform molecules with smaller size. Further the polysaccharide product was 40% more soluble at 25°C than the corresponding heat treated control. Both of these observations were supported by 13C solid-state MAS NMR. Hence, significant chain transfer took place in the semi-solid state starch permitting conservation of the main granular organization in the final product. A hypothetic model is presented to account for the observed phenomenon. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kumar A.U.,KMC
International Journal of Audiology | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceptual learning of non-native speech sounds and strength of feedback in the medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB). Discrimination abilities of non-native speech sounds (Malayalam) from its native counterparts (Hindi) were monitored during 12 days of training. Contralateral inhibition of otoacoustic emissions were measured on the first and twelfth day of training. Results suggested that training significantly improved reaction time and accuracy of identification of non-native speech sounds. There was a significant positive correlation between the slope (linear) of identification scores and change in distortion product otoacoustic emission inhibition at 3000 Hz. Findings suggest that during perceptual learning feedback from the MOCB may fine tune the brain stem and/or cochlea. However, such a change, isolated to a narrow frequency region, represents a limited effect and needs further exploration to confirm and/or extend any generalization of findings. © 2010 British Society of Audiology, International Society of Audiology, and Nordic Audiological Society. Source


News Article
Site: http://www.nanotech-now.com/

Abstract: Current semiconductor technology is based on silicon, an inorganic semiconductor material in which impurity atoms are introduced or doped for use in electronic components to increase conductivity and tailor the electronic structure. However, organic solid-state materials made of conjugated molecules or polymers can also exhibit promising semiconducting properties that make their application feasible for organic electronics. Guest molecules in a host structure The enormous application potential of organic electronics has been clearly demonstrated for example by the success of organic LEDs (OLEDs) in the recent years. Oligothiophene (4T) and polythiophene (P3HT), two typical organic semiconductors, can be doped with a second type of molecule such as a strong electron acceptor (F4TCNQ) for example to control the electrical conductivity. However, until recently, how these guest molecules are exactly integrated into the host structure was poorly understood. A homogenous distribution analogous to that in inorganic semiconductors had therefore always been assumed. Unusual characteristics An international group headed by the Molecular Systems Joint Research Team at the HZB and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin has now been able to demonstrate that this is not the case for either oligothiophene or polythiophene. The group, co-led by Dr. Ingo Salzmann and Prof. Norbert Koch, had previously experimented with and already modelled other systems to learn how doping organic semiconductors affects their electronic structure and thus their conductivity. This produced clues about unusual characteristics of this class of materials in which hybridisation of the molecular orbitals plays a key role. They therefore fabricated a series of organic thin films with increasingly heavy levels of doping and investigated these samples using X-ray diffraction techniques at the KMC-2 beamline managed by Dr. Daniel Toebbens. They were able to precisely determine the dependence of the crystalline structure on the degree of doping using this technique. Co-crystallites as dopants Their results for the organic semiconductors 4T and P3HT showed that the guest molecules - quite contrary to the expectations - are not uniformly incorporated in the host lattice at all. Instead, a second crystalline phase of host/guest co-crystallites is formed in the pure crystalline host matrix. These co-crystals function in the role of dopant in place of the actual, pure doping molecules in such systems. Better understanding for more control "It is important to understand the fundamental processes involved in the molecular electrical doping of organic semiconductors more precisely", explains Salzmann, continuing: "If we want to successfully employ these kinds of materials in applications, we need to be able to control their electronic properties just as precisely as we customarily do today with inorganic semiconductors". For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

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