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Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Da Silva M.-A.O.,Center for Zoo and Wild Animal Health | Da Silva M.-A.O.,Copenhagen University | Kortegaard H.E.,Copenhagen University | Choong S.S.,Km 10 | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2011

Facial abscessation and osteomyelitis due to dental disease is commonly seen in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), but little is known about the prevalence or etiology of these lesions. To determine the prevalence of dental ailments, 56 skulls and mandibles of deceased Malayan tapirs were visually and radiographically evaluated. Dental lesions were scored according to severity, and individuals were classified according to their age (juvenile/young adult/adult) and origin (captive/free ranging). All of the lesions identified were of a resorptive nature, seemingly originating at the cementoenamel junction and burrowing towards the center of the tooth. Overall, 27% of the investigated skulls presented radiolucent dental lesions. The prevalence among captive animals was 52% (13/25), while only 6% (2/31) of the free-ranging tapirs had dental lesions. The second, third, and fourth premolars and first molar were the teeth most commonly affected, and the mandibular teeth were more often involved than the maxillary dentition. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of resorptive dental lesions in captive Malayan tapirs and provides a strong indication that age and captivity are significant risk factors in the development of these lesions. © 2011 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Berry N.J.,University of Leeds | Berry N.J.,Ecometrica | Phillips O.L.,University of Leeds | Lewis S.L.,University of Leeds | And 8 more authors.
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2010

The carbon storage and conservation value of old-growth tropical forests is clear, but the value of logged forest is less certain. Here we analyse >100,000 observations of individuals from 11 taxonomic groups and >2,500 species, covering up to 19 years of post-logging regeneration, and quantify the impacts of logging on carbon storage and biodiversity within lowland dipterocarp forests of Sabah, Borneo. We estimate that forests lost ca. 53% of above-ground biomass as a result of logging but despite this high level of degradation, logged forest retained considerable conservation value: floral species richness was higher in logged forest than in primary forest and whilst faunal species richness was typically lower in logged forest, in most cases the difference between habitats was no greater than ca. 10%. Moreover, in most studies >90% of species recorded in primary forest were also present in logged forest, including species of conservation concern. During recovery, logged forest accumulated carbon at five times the rate of natural forest (1.4 and 0.28 Mg C ha-1 year-1, respectively). We conclude that allowing the continued regeneration of extensive areas of Borneo's forest that have already been logged, and are at risk of conversion to other land uses, would provide a significant carbon store that is likely to increase over time. Protecting intact forest is critical for biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, but the contribution of logged forest to these twin goals should not be overlooked. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010. Source

Takaoka H.,University of Malaya | Sofian-Azirun M.,University of Malaya | Hashim R.,University of Malaya | Otsuka Y.,Oita University | And 3 more authors.
Raffles Bulletin of Zoology | Year: 2012

Two species of black flies, Simulium (Simulium) jasmoni Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Belabut, 2012 and S. (S.) tiomanense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Belabut, 2012, described from Tioman Island, Pahang, Malaysia, are placed in two different lineages of the tuberosum species-group in the subgenus Simulium (Simulium) Latreille, and have close similarities to S. (S.) tani Takaoka & Davies, 1995 and S. (S.) brevipar Takaoka & Davies, 1995, respectively, which were the only members of the same species-group in the nearest mainland of Peninsular Malaysia. It is suggested that S. (S.) jasmoni and S. (S.) tani in one lineage, as well as S. (S.) tiomanense and S. (S.) brevipar in another, had a common vicariant origin and were isolated after sea levels rose. Comparisons of character states of several pupal morphological features among four species in one lineage and five species in another lineage show that both S. (S.) jasmoni and S. (S.) tiomanense on Tioman Island retain more putative ancestral characters than S. (S.) tani and S. (S.) brevipar and other species in the same lineages on the continent and its adjacent large islands. Keys to 10 Malaysian members of the tuberosum species-group are provided for females, males, pupae, and mature larvae. © National University of Singapore. Source

Abdul-Latiff M.A.B.,National University of Malaysia | Ruslin F.,National University of Malaysia | Fui V.V.,National University of Malaysia | Fui V.V.,UCSI University | And 7 more authors.
ZooKeys | Year: 2014

Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia's long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo's population was distinguished from Peninsula's population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia. © M.A.B. Abdul-Latiff et al. Source

Rosli M.K.A.,National University of Malaysia | Syed-Shabthar S.M.F.,National University of Malaysia | Abdul-Patah P.,Km 10 | Abdul-Samad Z.,National University of Malaysia | And 9 more authors.
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis. © 2014 M. K. A. Rosli et al. Source

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