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Branco dos Santos F.,VU University Amsterdam | Branco dos Santos F.,Kluyver Center for Genomics of Industrial Fermentations | de Vos W.M.,Wageningen University | de Vos W.M.,University of Helsinki | And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2013

We review the uses and limitations of modelling approaches that are in use in the field of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). We describe recent developments in model construction and computational methods, starting from application of such models to monocultures. However, since most applications in food biotechnology involve complex nutrient environments and mixed cultures, we extend the scope to discuss developments in modelling such complex systems. With metagenomics and meta-functional genomics data becoming available, the developments in genome-scale community models are discussed. We conclude that exploratory tools are available and useful, but truly predictive mechanistic models will remain a major challenge in the field. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Goffin P.,Kluyver Center for Genomics of Industrial Fermentations | Goffin P.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition | Goffin P.,NIZO food research | Goffin P.,Glaxosmithkline | And 14 more authors.
Molecular Systems Biology | Year: 2010

Situations of extremely low substrate availability, resulting in slow growth, are common in natural environments. To mimic these conditions, Lactobacillus plantarum was grown in a carbon-limited retentostat with complete biomass retention. The physiology of extremely slow-growing L. plantarumĝ€"as studied by genome-scale modeling and transcriptomicsĝ€"was fundamentally different from that of stationary-phase cells. Stress resistance mechanisms were not massively induced during transition to extremely slow growth. The energy-generating metabolism was remarkably stable and remained largely based on the conversion of glucose to lactate. The combination of metabolic and transcriptomic analyses revealed behaviors involved in interactions with the environment, more particularly with plants: production of plant hormones or precursors thereof, and preparedness for the utilization of plant-derived substrates. Accordingly, the production of compounds interfering with plant root development was demonstrated in slow-growing L. plantarum. Thus, conditions of slow growth and limited substrate availability seem to trigger a plant environment-like response, even in the absence of plant-derived material, suggesting that this might constitute an intrinsic behavior in L. plantarum. © 2010 EMBO and Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Gombert A.K.,Technical University of Delft | Gombert A.K.,Kluyver Center for Genomics of Industrial Fermentations | Gombert A.K.,University of Sao Paulo | Veiga T.,Technical University of Delft | And 13 more authors.
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2011

Penicillium chrysogenum is widely used as an industrial antibiotic producer, in particular in the synthesis of ß-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. In industrial processes, oxalic acid formation leads to reduced product yields. Moreover, precipitation of calcium oxalate complicates product recovery. We observed oxalate production in glucose-limited chemostat cultures of P. chrysogenum grown with or without addition of adipic acid, side-chain of the cephalosporin precursor adipoyl-6-aminopenicillinic acid (ad-6-APA). Oxalate accounted for up to 5% of the consumed carbon source. In filamentous fungi, oxaloacetate hydrolase (OAH; EC3.7.1.1) is generally responsible for oxalate production. The P. chrysogenum genome harbours four orthologs of the A. niger oahA gene. Chemostat-based transcriptome analyses revealed a significant correlation between extracellular oxalate titers and expression level of the genes Pc18g05100 and Pc22g24830. To assess their possible involvement in oxalate production, both genes were cloned in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeast that does not produce oxalate. Only the expression of Pc22g24830 led to production of oxalic acid in S. cerevisiae. Subsequent deletion of Pc22g28430 in P. chrysogenum led to complete elimination of oxalate production, whilst improving yields of the cephalosporin precursor ad-6-APA. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Pudlik A.M.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition | Pudlik A.M.,University of Groningen | Pudlik A.M.,Kluyver Center for Genomics of Industrial Fermentations | Lolkema J.S.,University of Groningen
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2011

Citrate metabolism in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis IL1403(pFL3) results in the formation of two end products from the intermediate pyruvate, acetoin and acetate (A. M. Pudlik and J. S. Lolkema, J. Bacteriol. 193:706-714, 2011). Pyruvate is formed from citrate following uptake by the transporter CitP through the subsequent actions of citrate lyase and oxaloacetate decarboxylase. The present study describes the metabolic response of L. lactis when oxaloacetate accumulates in the cytoplasm. The oxaloacetate decarboxylase-deficient mutant ILCitM(pFL3) showed nearly identical rates of citrate consumption, but the end product profile in the presence of glucose shifted from mainly acetoin to only acetate. In addition, in contrast to the parental strain, the mutant strain did not generate proton motive force. Citrate consumption by the mutant strain was coupled to the excretion of oxaloacetate, with a yield of 80 to 85%. Following citrate consumption, oxaloacetate was slowly taken up by the cells and converted to pyruvate by a cryptic decarboxylase and, subsequently, to acetate. The transport of oxaloacetate is catalyzed by CitP. The parental strain IL1403(pFL3) containing CitP consumed oxaloacetate, while the original strain, IL1403, not containing CitP, did not. Moreover, oxaloacetate consumption was enhanced in the presence of L-lactate, indicating exchange between oxaloacetate and L-lactate catalyzed by CitP. Hence, when oxaloacetate inadvertently accumulates in the cytoplasm, the physiological response of L. lactis is to excrete oxaloacetate in exchange with citrate by an electroneutral mechanism catalyzed by CitP. Subsequently, in a second step, oxaloacetate is taken up by CitP and metabolized to pyruvate and acetate. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Pudlik A.M.,Top Institute Food and Nutrition | Pudlik A.M.,University of Groningen | Pudlik A.M.,Kluyver Center for Genomics of Industrial Fermentations | Lolkema J.S.,University of Groningen
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Oxaloacetate is an intermediate of the citrate fermentation pathway that accumulates in the cytoplasm of Lactococcus lactis ILCitM(pFL3) at a high concentration due to the inactivation of oxaloacetate decarboxylase. An excess of toxic oxaloacetate is excreted into the medium in exchange for citrate by the citrate transporter CitP (A. M. Pudlik and J. S. Lolkema, J. Bacteriol. 193:4049-4056, 2011). In this study, transamination of amino acids with oxaloacetate as the keto donor is described as an additional mechanism to relieve toxic stress. Redirection of the citrate metabolic pathway into the transamination route in the presence of the branched-chain amino acids Ile, Leu, and Val; the aromatic amino acids Phe, Trp, and Tyr; and Met resulted in he formation of aspartate and the corresponding α-keto acids. Cells grown in the presence of citrate showed 3.5 to 7 times higher transaminase activity in the cytoplasm than cells grown in the absence of citrate. The study demonstrates that transaminases of L. lactis accept oxaloacetate as a keto donor. A significant fraction of 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate formed from methionine by citratedriven transamination in vivo was further metabolized, yielding the cheese aroma compounds 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyrate and methyl-3-methylthiopropionate. Reducing equivalents required for the former compound were produced in the citrate fermentation pathway as NADH. Similarly, phenylpyruvate, the transamination product of phenylalanine, was reduced to phenyllactate, while the dehydrogenase activity was not observed for the branched-chain keto acids. Both α-keto acids and α-hydroxy acids are known substrates of CitP and may be excreted from the cell in exchange for citrate or oxaloacetate. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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