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Freiburg, Germany

Melchers I.,Klinische Forschergruppe
Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie | Year: 2011

Genetic risk factors are known to exist for all collagen vascular diseases. They are most important for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic scleroderma (SSc), as shown by the systematic analysis of family data. Both diseases to date share most of the validated risk factors (PTPN22, STAT4, BANK1, TNFAIP3, IRF5, BLK) underlining once again their relationship. Moreover, most of these factors were also shown to be associated with other autoimmune diseases. Many additional risk factors exist, but need further analysis. The HLA complex is of special interest, as many loci within this region, some highly polymorphic, may contribute to the total genetic risk. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

Selezska K.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | Kazmierczak M.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures | Musken M.,Center for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research | Garbe J.,Lund University | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Pseudomonas aeruginosa attracts research attention as a common opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing severe health problems in humans. Nevertheless, its primary habitat is the natural environment. Here, we relate the genetic diversity of 381 environmental isolates from rivers in northern Germany to ecological factors such as river system, season of sampling and different levels of water quality. From representatives of 99 environmental clones, also in comparison with 91 clinical isolates, we determined motility phenotypes, virulence factors, biofilm formation, serotype and the resistance to seven environmental P. aeruginosa phages. The integration of genetic, ecological and phenotypic data showed (i) the presence of several extended clonal complexes (ecc) which are non-uniformly distributed across different water qualities, and (ii) a correlation of the hosts' serotype composition with susceptibility towards distinct groups of environmental phages. For at least one ecc (eccB), we assumed the ecophysiological differences on environmental water adaptation and phage resistance to be so distinct as to reinforce an environmentally driven cladogenic split from the remainder of P. aeruginosa. In summary, we conclude that the majority of the microevolutionary population dynamics of P. aeruginosa were shaped by the natural environment and not by the clinical habitat. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Bals R.,Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes | Hubert D.,CRCM Service de Pneumologie Hopital Cochin | Tummler B.,Klinische Forschergruppe
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis | Year: 2011

Chronic infection of the respiratory tract is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF). Antibiotic treatment has been used as one of the mainstays of therapy and together with other treatment modalities has resulted in increased survival of CF patients. Increasing resistance of CF-specific pathogens to various classes of antibiotics explains the need for novel antibiotic strategies. This review focuses on the future development of new antibiotic therapies, including: (1) New targets, (2) novel antibiotic regimens in CF, (3) new antibiotics, and (4) other investigational therapies. In addition, we briefly summarize developments in the area of microbial diagnostics and discuss interactions between the complex pulmonary microflora. © 2011 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Source

Mainz J.G.,Jena University Hospital | Hentschel J.,Jena University Hospital | Schien C.,Jena University Hospital | Cramer N.,Klinische Forschergruppe | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis | Year: 2012

We report on two CF patients who received double lung transplantation (LTX) due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa related pulmonary destruction. Prior to LTX we detected P. aeruginosa in nasal lavages (NL) and sputum cultures from both patients. Donor lungs of patient 1 became colonized within four weeks with P. aeruginosa identical in genotype with isolates from his pre-transplant sputum cultures and pre- and post-transplant NL.In contrast, patient 2 remained P. aeruginosa free in lower airway samples (bronchial lavage/sputum) for now up to 30. months, despite persistent detection of P. aeruginosa that was identical in genotype with pre-transplant NL and sputum isolates in NL and even in throat swabs. For prevention of pulmonary re-colonization patient 2 has continuously inhaled Colomycin 1. MIU once daily during the preceding more than 36 months with the novel Pari Sinus™ nebulizer, which in scintigraphic studies was shown to deliver vibrating aerosols into paranasal sinuses, additional to bronchial antibiotic inhalation. Discussion: Pulmonary colonization of transplanted donor lungs with identical clones previously colonizing the explanted lungs has been described previously and the upper airways were postulated as reservoir for descending colonization. However, this remained speculative, as upper airway sampling which does not belong to current standards, was not performed in these studies.Our report demonstrates persistence of identical P. aeruginosa genotypes in CF upper airways prior to and after LTX underlining risks of descending colonization of transplanted lungs with P. aeruginosa, which increases risks of graft dysfunction. Therefore, we recommend regular assessment of sinonasal colonization prior to and after LTX. Sinonasal inhalation with antimicrobials should be investigated in prospective trials. © 2011 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Source

Davenport C.,Klinische Forschergruppe | Ussery D.W.,Technical University of Denmark | Tummler B.,Klinische Forschergruppe
Photosynthesis Research | Year: 2010

Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO2 fixation. Whole-genome gene family and single gene sequence comparisons yielded similar phylogenetic trees of the sequenced chromosomes indicating a concerted vertical evolution of large gene sets. Chromosomal synteny of genes is not preserved in the phylum Chlorobi. The accessory genome is characterized by anomalous oligonucleotide usage and endows the strains with individual features for transport, secretion, cell wall, extracellular constituents, and a few elements of the biosynthetic apparatus. Giant genes are a peculiar feature of the genera Chlorobium and Prosthecochloris. The predicted proteins have a huge molecular weight of 106, and are probably instrumental for the bacteria to generate their own intimate (micro)environment. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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