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Kassel, Germany

Hautmann R.E.,University of Ulm | Abol-Enein H.,Mansoura University | Lee C.T.,University of Michigan | Mansson W.,Skane University Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Urology | Year: 2015

Objective To determine the rates of the available urinary diversion options for patients treated with radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in different settings (pioneering institutions, leading urologic oncology centers, and population based).Methods Population-based data from the literature included all patients (n = 7608) treated in Sweden during the period 1964-2008, from Germany (n = 14,200) for the years 2008 and 2011, US patients (identified from National Inpatient Sample during 1998-2005, 35,370 patients and 2001-2008, 55,187 patients), and from Medicare (n = 22,600) for the years 1992, 1995, 1998, and 2001. After the International Consultation on Urologic Diseases-European Association of Urology International Consultation on Bladder Cancer 2012, the urinary diversion committee members disclosed data from their home institutions (n = 15,867), including the pioneering institutions and the leading urologic oncology centers. They are the coauthors of this report.Results The receipt of continent urinary diversion in Sweden and the United States is <15%, whereas in the German high-volume setting, 30% of patients receive a neobladder. At leading urologic oncology centers, this rate is also 30%. At pioneering institutions up to 75% of patients receive an orthotopic reconstruction. Anal diversion is <1%. Continent cutaneous diversion is the second choice.Conclusion Enormous variations in urinary diversion exist for >2 decades. Increased attention in expanding the use of continent reconstruction may help to reduce these disparities for patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Continent reconstruction should not be the exclusive domain of cystectomy centers. Efforts to increase rates of this complex reconstruction must concentrate on better definition of the quality-of-life impact, technique dissemination, and the centralization of radical cystectomy. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

123I-FP-CIT-SPECT is useful in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and tremor syndromes. Recently, there have been reports on normal nigrostriatal uptake of radio ligands in PD patients, referred to as scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDDs). Furthermore, a dopaminergic deficit has been described in some cases of different tremor types. We sought to clarify the occurrence of SWEDDs in PD and a possible association of various tremor types with PD. We performed a retrospective case analysis of 125 patients with diagnostically uncertain Parkinsonian or non-Parkinsonian tremor syndromes with clinical assessments and 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT. A total of 36/40 (90%) patients with the predominant clinical feature of a postural and/or kinetic tremor showed normal DAT SPECT; 73/85 (86%) with predominant clinical symptoms of PD showed abnormal DAT SPECT with lower overall radio ligand uptake and a significant asymmetry contralateral to the clinically more affected side. In all, 4/40 (10%) of non-Parkinsonian tremor patients had abnormal DAT SPECT, but no corresponding asymmetry of radio ligand uptake. Probable essential tremor was considered clinically in follow-up assessments although final diagnosis of these four tremor cases remains inconclusive. A total of 12/85 (14%) clinically suspected PD patients had normal DAT SPECT (SWEDDs). Clinical reassessment identified two patients with dystonic tremor. Five patients with a positive response to levodopa remained unclear. In four cases of suspected PD with normal DAT SPECT, non-neurologic diseases were identified. One case showed a complete and spontaneous remission of symptoms. DAT SPECT offers an objective method to confirm or exclude a dopaminergic deficit in tremor predominant parkinsonism for clinically inconclusive cases. There was no evidence of a decrease in DAT binding in the majority of patients with postural and/or kinetic tremor. The striatal asymmetry index is a further helpful tool for differentiating PD from non-PD tremor syndromes. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Hautmann R.E.,University of Ulm | Abol-Enein H.,Mansoura University | Davidsson T.,University of Bergen | Gudjonsson S.,Skane University Hospital | And 16 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2013

Context: A summary of the 2nd International Consultation on Bladder Cancer recommendations on the reconstructive options after radical cystectomy (RC), their outcomes, and their complications. Objective: To review the literature regarding indications, surgical details, postoperative care, complications, functional outcomes, as well as quality-of-life measures of patients with different forms of urinary diversion (UD). Evidence acquisition: An English-language literature review of data published between 1970 and 2012 on patients with UD following RC for bladder cancer was undertaken. No randomized controlled studies comparing conduit diversion with neobladder or continent cutaneous diversion have been performed. Consequently, almost all studies used in this report are of level 3 evidence. Therefore, the recommendations given here are grade C only, meaning expert opinion delivered without a formal analysis. Evidence synthesis: Indications and patient selection criteria have significantly changed over the past 2 decades. Renal function impairment is primarily caused by obstruction. Complications such as stone formation, urine outflow, and obstruction at any level must be recognized early and treated. In patients with orthotopic bladder substitution, daytime and nocturnal continence is achieved in 85-90% and 60-80%, respectively. Continence is inferior in elderly patients with orthotopic reconstruction. Urinary retention remains significant in female patients, ranging from 7% to 50%. Conclusions: RC and subsequent UD have been assessed as the most difficult surgical procedure in urology. Significant disparity on how the surgical complications were reported makes it impossible to compare postoperative morbidity results. Complications rates overall following RC and UD are significant, and when strict reporting criteria are incorporated, they are much higher than previously published. Fortunately, most complications are minor (Clavien grade 1 or 2). Complications can occur up to 20 yr after surgery, emphasizing the need for lifelong monitoring. Evidence suggests an association between surgical volume and outcome in RC; the challenge of optimum care for elderly patients with comorbidities is best mastered at high-volume hospitals by high-volume surgeons. Preoperative patient information, patient selection, surgical techniques, and careful postoperative follow-up are the cornerstones to achieve good long-term results. © 2012 European Association of Urology.

Hautmann R.E.,University of Ulm | De Petriconi R.C.,University of Ulm | Volkmer B.G.,Klinikum Kassel
Journal of Urology | Year: 2011

Purpose: We analyzed the long-term complications (greater than 90 days postoperatively) in a large, single center series of patients who underwent cystectomy and substitution with an ileal neobladder. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,540 radical cystectomies were performed at our center between January 1986 and September 2008. Of the patients 1,013 received an ileal neobladder. Only the 923 patients with followup longer than 90 days (median 72 months, range 3 to 267) were included in analysis. All long-term complications were identified. The complication rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The overall survival rate was 65.5%, 49.8% and 28.3% at 5, 10 and 20 years, respectively. The overall long-term complication rate was 40.8% with 3 neobladder related deaths. Hydronephrosis, incisional hernia, ileus or small bowel obstruction and feverish urinary tract infection were observed in 16.9%, 6.4%, 3.6% and 5.7% of patients, respectively, 20 years postoperatively. Subneovesical obstruction in 3.1% of cases was due to local tumor recurrence in 1.1%, neovesicourethral anastomotic stricture in 1.2% and urethral stricture in 0.9%. Chronic diarrhea was noted in 9 patients. Vitamin B12 was substituted in 2 patients. Episodes of severe metabolic acidosis occurred in 11 patients and 307 of 923 required long-term bicarbonate substitution. Rare complications included cutaneous neobladder fistulas in 2 cases, and intestinal neobladder fistulas, iatrogenic neobladder perforation, spontaneous perforation and necrotizing pyocystis in 1 each. Conclusions: Even in experienced hands the long-term complication rate of radical cystectomy and neobladder formation are not negligible. Most complications are diversion related. The challenge of optimum care for these elderly patients with comorbidities is best mastered at high volume hospitals by high volume surgeons. © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.

Hautmann R.E.,University of Ulm | De Petriconi R.C.,University of Ulm | Pfeiffer C.,Klinikum Kassel | Volkmer B.G.,University of Ulm
European Urology | Year: 2012

Background: The optimal treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BCa) remains controversial. Objective: Better define the long-term outcomes of radical cystectomy (RC) alone for BCa and determine the impact of pathologic downstaging after transurethral resection in a large and homogeneous single-center series. Design, setting, and participants: A cohort of 1100 patients undergoing RC with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) without neoadjuvant therapy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder between January 1, 1986, and December 2009 was evaluated. Patients with other than metastases to the pelvic lymph nodes were excluded. Median age was 65 yr. Clinical course, pathologic characteristics, and long-term outcomes were evaluated. Follow-up was obtained until December 2009 with a median of 38 mo and a completeness of 96.5%. Intervention: RC with PLND; urinary diversion with ileal neobladder whenever possible. Measurements: Primary end points were disease-specific survival (DSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) according to the tumor stage of the RC specimen versus the maximum tumor stage. The log-rank test was used to compare subgroups. Results and limitations: The 30-d (90-d) mortality rate was 3.2% (5.2%). The 10-yr OS, DSS, and RFS rates were 44.3%, 66.8%, and 65.5%, respectively. Based on the tumor stage of the RC specimen, the 10-yr DSS rate was pT0/a/is/1 pN0: 90.5%, pT2a/b pN0: 66.8%, pT3a/b pN0: 59.7%, pT4a/b pN0: 36.6%, and pTall pN+: 16.7%. Downstaging by transurethral resection of the prostate was observed in 382 patients. Patients with maximum tumor stage pT2a/b pN0 had distinctly better 10-yr DSS rates than those with pT2a/b pN0 in the RC specimen: pT2a pN0: 92.2% versus 73.8%; pT2b: 75.0% versus 62.0%. A total of 49% female and 80% male patients received an ileal neobladder. Conclusions: This contemporary and homogeneous single-center series found acceptable OS, DFS, and RFS for patients undergoing RC. Pathologic downstaging had a significant impact on survival. © 2012 European Association of Urology.

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