Kassel, Germany
Kassel, Germany

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Hautmann R.E.,University of Ulm | Abol-Enein H.,Mansoura University | Davidsson T.,University of Bergen | Gudjonsson S.,Skåne University Hospital | And 16 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2013

Context: A summary of the 2nd International Consultation on Bladder Cancer recommendations on the reconstructive options after radical cystectomy (RC), their outcomes, and their complications. Objective: To review the literature regarding indications, surgical details, postoperative care, complications, functional outcomes, as well as quality-of-life measures of patients with different forms of urinary diversion (UD). Evidence acquisition: An English-language literature review of data published between 1970 and 2012 on patients with UD following RC for bladder cancer was undertaken. No randomized controlled studies comparing conduit diversion with neobladder or continent cutaneous diversion have been performed. Consequently, almost all studies used in this report are of level 3 evidence. Therefore, the recommendations given here are grade C only, meaning expert opinion delivered without a formal analysis. Evidence synthesis: Indications and patient selection criteria have significantly changed over the past 2 decades. Renal function impairment is primarily caused by obstruction. Complications such as stone formation, urine outflow, and obstruction at any level must be recognized early and treated. In patients with orthotopic bladder substitution, daytime and nocturnal continence is achieved in 85-90% and 60-80%, respectively. Continence is inferior in elderly patients with orthotopic reconstruction. Urinary retention remains significant in female patients, ranging from 7% to 50%. Conclusions: RC and subsequent UD have been assessed as the most difficult surgical procedure in urology. Significant disparity on how the surgical complications were reported makes it impossible to compare postoperative morbidity results. Complications rates overall following RC and UD are significant, and when strict reporting criteria are incorporated, they are much higher than previously published. Fortunately, most complications are minor (Clavien grade 1 or 2). Complications can occur up to 20 yr after surgery, emphasizing the need for lifelong monitoring. Evidence suggests an association between surgical volume and outcome in RC; the challenge of optimum care for elderly patients with comorbidities is best mastered at high-volume hospitals by high-volume surgeons. Preoperative patient information, patient selection, surgical techniques, and careful postoperative follow-up are the cornerstones to achieve good long-term results. © 2012 European Association of Urology.

123I-FP-CIT-SPECT is useful in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and tremor syndromes. Recently, there have been reports on normal nigrostriatal uptake of radio ligands in PD patients, referred to as scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDDs). Furthermore, a dopaminergic deficit has been described in some cases of different tremor types. We sought to clarify the occurrence of SWEDDs in PD and a possible association of various tremor types with PD. We performed a retrospective case analysis of 125 patients with diagnostically uncertain Parkinsonian or non-Parkinsonian tremor syndromes with clinical assessments and 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT. A total of 36/40 (90%) patients with the predominant clinical feature of a postural and/or kinetic tremor showed normal DAT SPECT; 73/85 (86%) with predominant clinical symptoms of PD showed abnormal DAT SPECT with lower overall radio ligand uptake and a significant asymmetry contralateral to the clinically more affected side. In all, 4/40 (10%) of non-Parkinsonian tremor patients had abnormal DAT SPECT, but no corresponding asymmetry of radio ligand uptake. Probable essential tremor was considered clinically in follow-up assessments although final diagnosis of these four tremor cases remains inconclusive. A total of 12/85 (14%) clinically suspected PD patients had normal DAT SPECT (SWEDDs). Clinical reassessment identified two patients with dystonic tremor. Five patients with a positive response to levodopa remained unclear. In four cases of suspected PD with normal DAT SPECT, non-neurologic diseases were identified. One case showed a complete and spontaneous remission of symptoms. DAT SPECT offers an objective method to confirm or exclude a dopaminergic deficit in tremor predominant parkinsonism for clinically inconclusive cases. There was no evidence of a decrease in DAT binding in the majority of patients with postural and/or kinetic tremor. The striatal asymmetry index is a further helpful tool for differentiating PD from non-PD tremor syndromes. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Hautmann R.E.,University of Ulm | Abol-Enein H.,Mansoura University | Lee C.T.,University of Michigan | Mansson W.,Skåne University Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Urology | Year: 2015

Objective To determine the rates of the available urinary diversion options for patients treated with radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in different settings (pioneering institutions, leading urologic oncology centers, and population based).Methods Population-based data from the literature included all patients (n = 7608) treated in Sweden during the period 1964-2008, from Germany (n = 14,200) for the years 2008 and 2011, US patients (identified from National Inpatient Sample during 1998-2005, 35,370 patients and 2001-2008, 55,187 patients), and from Medicare (n = 22,600) for the years 1992, 1995, 1998, and 2001. After the International Consultation on Urologic Diseases-European Association of Urology International Consultation on Bladder Cancer 2012, the urinary diversion committee members disclosed data from their home institutions (n = 15,867), including the pioneering institutions and the leading urologic oncology centers. They are the coauthors of this report.Results The receipt of continent urinary diversion in Sweden and the United States is <15%, whereas in the German high-volume setting, 30% of patients receive a neobladder. At leading urologic oncology centers, this rate is also 30%. At pioneering institutions up to 75% of patients receive an orthotopic reconstruction. Anal diversion is <1%. Continent cutaneous diversion is the second choice.Conclusion Enormous variations in urinary diversion exist for >2 decades. Increased attention in expanding the use of continent reconstruction may help to reduce these disparities for patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Continent reconstruction should not be the exclusive domain of cystectomy centers. Efforts to increase rates of this complex reconstruction must concentrate on better definition of the quality-of-life impact, technique dissemination, and the centralization of radical cystectomy. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Healey J.S.,McMaster University | Hohnloser S.H.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Glikson M.,Leviev Heart Center | Neuzner J.,Klinikum Kassel | And 17 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Background Defibrillation testing by induction and termination of ventricular fibrillation is widely done at the time of implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of ICD implantation without defibrillation testing versus the standard of ICD implantation with defibrillation testing. Methods In this single-blind, randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority trial (Shockless IMPLant Evaluation [SIMPLE]), we recruited patients aged older than 18 years receiving their first ICD for standard indications at 85 hospitals in 18 countries worldwide. Exclusion criteria included pregnancy, awaiting transplantation, particpation in another randomised trial, unavailability for follow-up, or if it was expected that the ICD would have to be implanted on the right-hand side of the chest. Patients undergoing initial implantation of a Boston Scientific ICD were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated sequence to have either defibrillation testing (testing group) or not (no-testing group). We used random block sizes to conceal treatment allocation from the patients, and randomisation was stratified by clinical centre. Our primary efficacy analysis tested the intention-to-treat population for non-inferiority of no-testing versus testing by use of a composite outcome of arrhythmic death or failed appropriate shock (ie, a shock that did not terminate a spontaneous episode of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation). The non-inferiority margin was a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·5 calculated from a proportional hazards model with no-testing versus testing as the only covariate; if the upper bound of the 95% CI was less than 1·5, we concluded that ICD insertion without testing was non-inferior to ICD with testing. We examined safety with two, 30 day, adverse event outcome clusters. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00800384. Findings Between Jan 13, 2009, and April 4, 2011, of 2500 eligible patients, 1253 were randomly assigned to defibrillation testing and 1247 to no-testing, and followed up for a mean of 3·1 years (SD 1·0). The primary outcome of arrhythmic death or failed appropriate shock occurred in fewer patients (90 [7% per year]) in the no-testing group than patients who did receive it (104 [8% per year]; HR 0·86, 95% CI 0·65-1·14; pnon-inferiority <0·0001). The first safety composite outcome occurred in 69 (5·6%) of 1236 patients with no-testing and in 81 (6·5%) of 1242 patients with defibrillation testing, p=0·33. The second, pre-specified safety composite outcome, which included only events most likely to be directly caused by testing, occurred in 3·2% of patients with no-testing and in 4·5% with defibrillation testing, p=0·08. Heart failure needing intravenous treatment with inotropes or diuretics was the most common adverse event (in 20 [2%] of 1236 patients in the no-testing group vs 28 [2%] of 1242 patients in the testing group, p=0·25). Interpretation Routine defibrillation testing at the time of ICD implantation is generally well tolerated, but does not improve shock efficacy or reduce arrhythmic death. Funding Boston Scientific and the Heart and Stroke Foundation (Ontario Provincial office). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Roth C.,Klinikum Kassel | Mielke A.,Klinikum Kassel | Siekmann R.,Klinikum Kassel | Ferbert A.,Klinikum Kassel
Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2011

Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate our first results using a new device for mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion. Methods: Between May 2009 and September 2010 a new device for aspiration thrombectomy (The Penumbra System™; Penumbra Inc., Alameda, Calif., USA) was used in 12 patients with acute basilar artery occlusion. We performed a retrospective review of these patients' medical records. Results: One patient received endovascular treatment without intravenous (IV) thrombolysis because of infarction on the initial CT scan. Eleven of 12 patients received IV thrombolysis with rtPA followed by endovascular thrombectomy according to a bridging concept. After thrombolysis, the basilar artery was patent in 1 patient (9%), partially recanalized in 3 (27%) and still occluded in 7 (64%). The endovascular device could not access in 2 patients (17%). Among the remaining 10 patients, the patency rate after thrombectomy was 100%. The overall patency rate after treatment was 9 of 12 (75%) at the time of discharge. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale improved from a median of 27 to a median of 18 after treatment. Four patients died (33%). The survivors had a mean modified Rankin Scale before discharge of 2.3 (range 0-4). Conclusions: A bridging therapy with the combination of IV thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and continuous aspiration thrombectomy seems to be a promising therapy strategy for acute basilar artery occlusion. Furthermore, our results confirm the advantage of the additional use of this new thrombectomy device, working with thrombus aspiration, with a satisfactory patency rate and a good clinical outcome. © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Roth C.,Klinikum Kassel | Ferbert A.,Klinikum Kassel
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been known for more than 10 years. The long-term prognosis of this condition remains unknown. Patients and methods: In 2006, the authors screened retrospectively the medical records of our department between 1993 and 2006 for PRES. The authors identified 13 patients. Since 2006, another 12 patients have been included prospectively. Since then, follow-up has been performed yearly for all patients. They were investigated in the outpatient clinic or, if they declined to attend, were interviewed by telephone. Results: The authors identified 25 patients with 27 episodes of PRES. Eighty-four per cent of the patients had generalised seizures. Their mean blood pressure was 167/100 mm Hg. Follow-up was performed for all patients over a mean period of 2250 days (range 59e9396; median 1699). Symptoms resolved, on average, after 7.5 days. Restitution of imaging abnormalities could be shown in 72% of cases. All others showed a clear improvement, but without complete restitution, after a mean duration of 41 days. Recurrence of PRES was observed in two patients (8%), 3 years after complete recovery from their first episode. Conclusion: These data show that PRES has a good short-term and long-term prognosis. Recurrence is infrequent, even though trigger factors for PRES were repeatedly experienced by the patients. Resolution of MRI lesions is slower than clinical recovery.

Roth C.,Klinikum Kassel | Deinsberger W.,Klinikum Kassel | Kleffmann J.,Klinikum Kassel | Ferbert A.,Klinikum Kassel
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2015

Background and purpose: Some authors have suggested a rise of intracranial pressure (ICP) during apnoea testing and the possibility of harm to patients. Data, however, have yet to be obtained. Methods: Between October 2012 and May 2014 an observational study was performed on patients who received ICP measurements and who underwent brain death diagnosis. ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate were recorded continuously from 15 min before the start of brain death diagnosis (baseline), during clinical examination including apnoea testing, until 15 min after this procedure. Results: A total of 16 clinical examinations for brain death including apnoea testing were performed on 13 patients. All patients had primary brain lesions. Mean ICP and mean CPP during the examination were 95 ± 27.7 mmHg and 13.5 ± 20.7 mmHg, respectively. ICP and MAP showed a strong and statistically significant correlation, with Pearson's correlation coefficients of more than +0.6 or less than -0.6 in 13 of the 15 examinations. Conclusion: Mean ICP even before brain death determination is increased excessively. Changes of ICP during apnoea show a clear correlation to the changes of MAP. Furthermore, CPP during the condition of brain death may not equal zero but may be positive thereby indicating some minor net influx of blood into the brain in some patients. © 2015 EAN.

Hautmann R.E.,University of Ulm | De Petriconi R.C.,University of Ulm | Volkmer B.G.,Klinikum Kassel
Journal of Urology | Year: 2011

Purpose: We analyzed the long-term complications (greater than 90 days postoperatively) in a large, single center series of patients who underwent cystectomy and substitution with an ileal neobladder. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,540 radical cystectomies were performed at our center between January 1986 and September 2008. Of the patients 1,013 received an ileal neobladder. Only the 923 patients with followup longer than 90 days (median 72 months, range 3 to 267) were included in analysis. All long-term complications were identified. The complication rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The overall survival rate was 65.5%, 49.8% and 28.3% at 5, 10 and 20 years, respectively. The overall long-term complication rate was 40.8% with 3 neobladder related deaths. Hydronephrosis, incisional hernia, ileus or small bowel obstruction and feverish urinary tract infection were observed in 16.9%, 6.4%, 3.6% and 5.7% of patients, respectively, 20 years postoperatively. Subneovesical obstruction in 3.1% of cases was due to local tumor recurrence in 1.1%, neovesicourethral anastomotic stricture in 1.2% and urethral stricture in 0.9%. Chronic diarrhea was noted in 9 patients. Vitamin B12 was substituted in 2 patients. Episodes of severe metabolic acidosis occurred in 11 patients and 307 of 923 required long-term bicarbonate substitution. Rare complications included cutaneous neobladder fistulas in 2 cases, and intestinal neobladder fistulas, iatrogenic neobladder perforation, spontaneous perforation and necrotizing pyocystis in 1 each. Conclusions: Even in experienced hands the long-term complication rate of radical cystectomy and neobladder formation are not negligible. Most complications are diversion related. The challenge of optimum care for these elderly patients with comorbidities is best mastered at high volume hospitals by high volume surgeons. © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.

Kaestner S.,Klinikum Kassel | Dimitriou I.,Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus
Journal of Neurological Surgery, Part A: Central European Neurosurgery | Year: 2013

Objective Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (pHC) is a serious complication following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Besides known clinical predictors, different cytokines have drawn attention to the development of chronic hydrocephalus. Transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and TGF β2 are involved in fibrogenesis, scar formation, cell survival, and tissue differentiation and may play a role in the occurrence of pHC. TGF β1 is stored in platelets in large amount and is released in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after SAH and IVH. Both TGF β1 and TGF β2 can be expressed by various intracranial cells. Methods TGF β1 and β2 were measured in CSF and blood samples of 42 patients with SAH or IVH with acute hydrocephalus during the first 10 days after ictus. Furthermore, albumin was measured in CSF as an indicator for the amount of blood. Patients were categorized as developing pHC requiring shunt treatment or not-developing pHC within 6 months. Results After adjusting for age, SAH resulted significantly more often in pHC than did IVH. Plasma levels of TGF β1 showed a marked increase over time, whereas CSF levels of TGF β1 constantly decreased. The time course of TGF β1 and albumin in CSF was paralleled and did not correlate with the development of shunt dependent pHC. Also, TGF β1 plasma concentrations did not correlate with shunt dependent pHC. TGF β2 concentrations in plasma showed stable values over time without any variations. TGF β2 in CSF described a parabolic course with a peak at day 6 after ictus. No correlation was found concerning TGF β2 in plasma or CSF and shunt dependent pHC. Conclusion TGF β1 in CSF is derived by platelets from the cisternal or ventricular clot. TGF β2 in CSF is derived as a general reaction of traumatized brain tissue. These data do not confirm a crucial role of TGF β1 and TGF β2 release in the development of pHC. © 2013 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Hautmann R.E.,University of Ulm | De Petriconi R.C.,University of Ulm | Pfeiffer C.,Klinikum Kassel | Volkmer B.G.,University of Ulm
European Urology | Year: 2012

Background: The optimal treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BCa) remains controversial. Objective: Better define the long-term outcomes of radical cystectomy (RC) alone for BCa and determine the impact of pathologic downstaging after transurethral resection in a large and homogeneous single-center series. Design, setting, and participants: A cohort of 1100 patients undergoing RC with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) without neoadjuvant therapy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder between January 1, 1986, and December 2009 was evaluated. Patients with other than metastases to the pelvic lymph nodes were excluded. Median age was 65 yr. Clinical course, pathologic characteristics, and long-term outcomes were evaluated. Follow-up was obtained until December 2009 with a median of 38 mo and a completeness of 96.5%. Intervention: RC with PLND; urinary diversion with ileal neobladder whenever possible. Measurements: Primary end points were disease-specific survival (DSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) according to the tumor stage of the RC specimen versus the maximum tumor stage. The log-rank test was used to compare subgroups. Results and limitations: The 30-d (90-d) mortality rate was 3.2% (5.2%). The 10-yr OS, DSS, and RFS rates were 44.3%, 66.8%, and 65.5%, respectively. Based on the tumor stage of the RC specimen, the 10-yr DSS rate was pT0/a/is/1 pN0: 90.5%, pT2a/b pN0: 66.8%, pT3a/b pN0: 59.7%, pT4a/b pN0: 36.6%, and pTall pN+: 16.7%. Downstaging by transurethral resection of the prostate was observed in 382 patients. Patients with maximum tumor stage pT2a/b pN0 had distinctly better 10-yr DSS rates than those with pT2a/b pN0 in the RC specimen: pT2a pN0: 92.2% versus 73.8%; pT2b: 75.0% versus 62.0%. A total of 49% female and 80% male patients received an ileal neobladder. Conclusions: This contemporary and homogeneous single-center series found acceptable OS, DFS, and RFS for patients undergoing RC. Pathologic downstaging had a significant impact on survival. © 2012 European Association of Urology.

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