Johnson R.W.,9 Ridgeway Road |
Bouhassira D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Kassianos G.,61 Plough Lane |
Leplege A.,University Paris Diderot |
And 2 more authors.
BMC Medicine | Year: 2010
Background: The potentially serious nature of herpes zoster (HZ) and the long-term complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) are often underestimated. One in four people will contract herpes zoster in their lifetime, with this risk rising markedly after the age of 50 years, and affecting one in two in elderly individuals. Pain is the predominant symptom in all phases of HZ disease, being reported by up to 90% of patients. In the acute phase, pain is usually moderate or severe, with patients ranking HZ pain as more intense than post-surgical or labour pains. Up to 20% of patients with HZ develop PHN, which is moderate-to-severe chronic pain persisting for months or years after the acute phase. We review the available data on the effect of HZ and PHN on patients' quality-of-life.Discussion: Findings show that HZ, and particularly PHN, have a major impact on patients' lives across all four health domains - physical, psychological, functional and social. There is a clear correlation between increasing severity of pain and greater interference with daily activities. Non-pain complications such as HZ ophthalmicus can increase the risk of permanent physical impairment. Some elderly individuals may experience a permanent loss of independence after an acute episode of HZ. Current challenges in the management of HZ and PHN are highlighted, including the difficulty in administering antiviral agents before pain becomes established and the limited efficacy of pain treatments in many patients. We discuss the clinical rationale for the HZ vaccine and evidence demonstrating that the vaccine reduces the burden of the disease. The Shingles Prevention Study, conducted among >38,000 people aged ≥60 years old, showed that the HZ vaccine significantly reduces the burden of illness and the incidence of both HZ and PHN. In the entire study population, zoster vaccination reduced the severity of interference of HZ and PHN with activities of daily living by two-thirds, as measured by two questionnaires specific to HZ.Summary: A vaccination scheme may positively impact the incidence and course of HZ disease, thereby improving patients' quality-of-life. © 2010 Johnson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Sandherr M.,Hematology and Oncology Specialized Practice |
Maschmeyer G.,Klinikum Ernst von Bergmann
European Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2011
Invasive fungal infections, predominantly aspergillosis and candidiasis, are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Primarily, patients with acute leukemia undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients are affected. Up to 60% of patients with invasive aspergillosis, the most common invasive mycosis among patients with hematologic malignancies, may still die of their infection, once it has become clinically overt. The spectrum of antifungal agents for clinical use now has expanded over the past ten years and includes the novel class of the echinocandins and two newer generation triazoles with an extended spectrum of activity against a wide range of fungal pathogens. This review will address pharmacological characteristics of the two broad-spectrum antifungal azoles, voriconazole and Posaconazole, which are important for their proper use in clinical practice. © I. Holzapfel Publishers 2011.
Maschmeyer G.,Klinikum Ernst von Bergmann |
Rolston K.V.I.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
Infections in Hematology | Year: 2015
Infections are among the most frequent complications in patients with hematological malignancies and in those undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A profound knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, treatment modalities and prophylactic strategies is essential for the clinical management of these complications in patients who are often severely immunocompromised owing to their underlying diseases and in particular, the intensive myelosuppressive chemo and immunotherapy. This textbook provides a clinically oriented, compact and up-to-date overview on infections in hematology patients and their management. The typical pathogens to be considered in different subgroups of patients are identified and further aspects of the microbiological background are explored. Clinical, imaging, and laboratory-based diagnostic techniques are discussed and therapeutic strategies appropriate to different situations are then presented, with due attention to the pitfalls, toxicities and interactions that can arise during antimicrobial treatment. Strategies to prevent infection are also outlined, encompassing antimicrobial prophylaxis, isolation procedures, hospital hygiene, protective immunization and the use of hematopoietic growth factors. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.
Oppert M.,Klinikum Ernst von Bergmann
Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica | Year: 2016
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent finding in patients with critical illness. In many of these patients renal replacement therapy (RRT) is needed to support organ dysfunction. Although international guidelines on the management of AKI have been developed and are widely accepted, there is still considerable controversy on the optimal timing of RRT. The clinician is in a constant dilemma that level of evidence (on timing of acute RRT) is low and the issue is of high importance. Despite this paucity of high quality prospective data, this review will give the reader an idea on how to approach the difficult question of initiating RRT. Obviously, no general recommendation can be given covering every aspect of intensive care medicine. Therefore, general thoughts are displayed, followed by a focus on specific clinical situations. The role of "novel" biomarkers in the process of deciding when to start is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Edizioni Minerva Medica.
Schulze K.,Klinikum Ernst von Bergmann
Sarcoidosis Vasculitis and Diffuse Lung Diseases | Year: 2013
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an untreatable diffuse parenchymal lung disease with a median survival of approximately three years. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is frequently seen in patients with IPF and is commonly attributed to hypoxic vasoconstriction and capillary destruction. Pathology findings include endothelial proliferation and medial hypertrophy that exceed those expected in the setting of hypoxia. Non-invasive evaluation has limited sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of PH in IPF; therefore, right-heart catheterisation remains the 'gold standard' diagnostic test. PH in patients with IPF is associated with decreased exercise capacity and worse survival. Given the grave consequences of this condition, treatment of PH could improve functional outcomes and survival. However, possible treatments such as long-term supplemental oxygen and targeted vascular therapy are either unstudied or remain unproven. © Mattioli 1885