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Afatinib (Giotrif®) is the first irreversible inhibitor of EGFR and other ErbB receptors (HER1-4) that has been approved for the treatment of patients with distinct types of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is an oral, once daily targeted therapy, based on the results of two large, randomized phase III clinical trials. Compared to standard chemotherapy Afatinib demonstrated an overall survival benefit for patients with the most common type of EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion/L858R) and improve symptoms of the disease and the quality of life. The most common drug-related adverse events, especially diarrhoea and skin disorders are predictable, generally manageable and reversible.

Doubkova M.,Klinika nemoci plicnich a tuberkulozy | Skrickova J.,Klinika nemoci plicnich a tuberkulozy
Studia Pneumologica et Phthiseologica | Year: 2015

Interstitial lung diseases, also called diffuse parenchymal lung disorders, are characterized by a variable degree of inflammatory and fibrotic changes affecting the interstitial spaces, air spaces and alveolar walls. New knowledge about these diseases led in 2013 to creation of a new classification of one of the subgroups of interstitial lung diseases called idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. The 2013 classification brought about many changes that may contribute to a more accurate diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are divided into major, rare and unclassifiable. Major IIPs are subdivided into chronic, smoking-related and acute/subacute IIPs. A new clinical entity called pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis has been described.

Lennerova Z.,Klinika nemoci plicnich a tuberkulozy | Skrickova J.,Klinika nemoci plicnich a tuberkulozy
Studia Pneumologica et Phthiseologica | Year: 2016

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a preventable and treatable disease. Yet in 1990, COPD was the 6th leading cause of death, estimated to rank third by 2020. This suggests that the disease is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Moreover, COPD is associated with considerable costs. According to data from the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), approximately 6 % of all healthcare expenses are used to treat respiratory diseases. Of that, approximately 56 % (36.6 billion euros) are used to treat COPD. The article also provides information on trends in the prevalence, mortality and comorbidities of COPD both worldwide and in the Czech Republic.

Doubkova M.,Klinika nemoci plicnich a tuberkulozy | Moulis M.,Ustav Patologie | Skrickova J.,Klinika nemoci plicnich a tuberkulozy
Vnitrni Lekarstvi | Year: 2015

Common variable immunodeficiency disorder belongs to the most common primary human immunodeficiencies and it is characterized by primary defective immunoglobulin production. Hypogammaglobulinemia manifests in every age, usually in adult people. There is no gender predisposition. The prevalence is 1:25 000-1:50 000. The ethiopathogenesis of the majority of CVIDs is unknown. The main clinical respiratory symptoms include recurrent respiratory infects, especially bacterial etiology, sinusitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, leading to bronchiectasis and lung fibrosis. Interstitial lung fibrosis and granulomatosis often manifest at diagnosis of CVID and they are negative prognostic factors of the disease.

Hrazdirova A.,Klinika nemoci plicnich a tuberkulozy | Potrepciakova S.,Klinika nemoci plicnich a tuberkulozy | Skrickova J.,Klinika nemoci plicnich a tuberkulozy | Jarkovsky J.,Insutut Biostatistiky a Analyz
Studia Pneumologica et Phthiseologica | Year: 2015

Over a period of 3 years, from 2010 to 2012, a total of 7,679 patients were admitted to the Department of Respiratory Medicine in Brno, of whom 106 had tuberculosis (TB). Those included 87 patients from the Czech Republic and 19 foreigners (18%). The study is concerned with comparing the two groups, Czech patients and foreigners born outside the country with TB, and determining differences in their age, gender, education, smoking status, family history, contacts, travel history, clinical course, symptoms, bacteriological confirmation, biological sample types, X-ray findings, and the presence of immunosuppression and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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