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Smilek P.,Klinika Otorinolaryngologie a Chirurgie Hlavy a Krku
Klinicka Onkologie | Year: 2010

This review summarizes biological markers of head and neck cancer, which have emerged from recent developments in molecular changes during carcinogenesis. These markers could be evaluated in every step that is believed to be necessary for the development of a cancer: acquisition of autonomous proliferative signalling (EGFR), proliferative activity of tumour cells (DNA content, Ki-67, mitotic index), inhibition of growth inhibitory signals (Bcl-2), apoptosis (p53), immortalization (telomerase), angiogenesis (CD34, VEGF) and metastasis (MMP-9, E-cadherin, I-CAM aj.). Most of these biological markers are at the preclinical research stage. Significant progress has been achieved in the application of targeted therapy in head and neck cancer.

Bartova I.,Klinika Otorinolaryngologie a Chirurgie Hlavy a Krku
Pediatrie pro Praxi | Year: 2012

Acute rhinosinusitis is one of the most common cases in pediatric praxis. Diagnostics is based mainly on patient́s history. Treatment follows according to seriousness and course of symptoms. Plain X-ray and CT are in diagnostics of noncomplicated cases not recommended. The most common agent in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is Streptococcus pneumoniae. The treatment follows according to seriousness and course of symptoms. Antibiotic of the first choice is in the Czech Republic amoxicilin in adequate dosage. If the symptoms are one sided or if there are signs of complications, it is necessary to refer the child to ENT specialist.

Cerny M.,Charles University | Kotulek M.,Klinika Otorinolaryngologie a Chirurgie Hlavy a Krku | Chrobok V.,Charles University
Endoskopie | Year: 2011

Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is a method used for examination of oral transport and pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Together with modified barium swallowing (MBS) it belongs to the standard methods of diagnostic and treatment of swallowing disorders. The flexible endoscope is passed through nasal cavity into pharynx and passage of food of various consistency is assessed. The authors describe technical equipment, methodology of examination and assessment, advantages and disadvantages of the method.

Stanek P.,Klinika Otorinolaryngologie a Chirurgie Hlavy a Krku
Otorinolaryngologie a Foniatrie | Year: 2015

Between the years 2001 and 2014, the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, St. Anne's Faculty Hospital in Brno, performed, within the frame of its consultation activity, altogether 403 flexible intubations in 374 patients (220 men and 154 women). Of this number, 234 cases were acute states and in 169 situations the flexible form of intubation had been planned in advance. Altogether 13 physicians took part in the interventions in various measure and extent, and in 42 situations the classical intubation method by the anaesthesiologist was unsuccessful. The most frequent indications for flexible intubation were surgeries on the thyroid gland and large surgical interventions associated with the lower airways. These were followed by internal and neurological indications, operations from the fields of neurosurgery and orthopaedics, and interventions from the fields of dental surgery, urology, and ophthalmology. Also, otorhinolaryngological problems had specific traits and indications of their own, especially the surgical part of head and neck oncology and, last but not least, traumatic conditions in the area of the head and the cervical spine. To a lesser extent, cardiosurgical indications as well as plastic and aesthetic surgeries were also represented. The technique of flexible intubation is an effective alternative to the classical intubation method and, moreover, with only minimal contraindications. However, it requires not only adequate technical equipment but also a specially trained team, preferably from the ranks of otorhinolaryngologists.

Kocabkova E.,Klinika Otorinolaryngologie a Chirurgie Hlavy a Krku | Vanaskova E.,Rehabilitacni klinika
Rehabilitacia | Year: 2012

Basis: speech impairments are common consequence of brain strokes, therefore clinical logopaedics is an unavoidable part of treatment and complex rehabilitation. Methods and group: The records of clinical speech therapist and the state of speech impairments were assessed in 38 patients (18 men and 20 women) after brain stroke in rehabilitation ward in 2011.The MASTcz test was used to assess phatic functions and the 3F Dysartric Test to evaluate the dysarthria. Speech examination was performed at the beginning and the end of rehabilitation programme (18-21 days). Results: From the group of 64 patients treated in the ward of rehabilitation clinic for the brain stroke, 38 patients were indicated for speech therapy. Authors recorded significant improvement in communication skills after targeted speech therapy within the complex rehabilitation programme. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary approach to the therapy, whose component is also the speech therapy, contributes to the significant improvements of patients' state and their self-sufficiency. High numbers of patients after stroke with communication disorders, together with therapeutic objectively substantiated successes, prove the important role of the clinical logopaedics branch in the team of complex care of these patients.

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