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Venous thromboembolism is a one of the most common complications of cancer, which contributes to mortality in cancer patients. The prognosis of cancer patients with thrombosis is significantly worse. Venous thromboembolism can be the first manifestation of occult cancer. Incidence of subsequent cancer diagnosis after thrombotic event reaches 25% and is highest within the first 6 months. Risk of cancer diagnosis is significantly higher in patients with idiopathic thrombosis compared with those with secondary thrombosis. We present case of 67-year-old man with recurrent vein thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism, who was subsequently diagnosed with disseminated adenocarcinoma, most likely of the lung. Source

Laprus I.,Klinika Onkologii Klinicznej i Doswiadczalnej | Adamek M.,Medical University of Silesia, Katowice | Kozielski J.,Medical University of Silesia, Katowice
Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska | Year: 2011

Lung cancer is the most common cancer in Poland and in the world and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. In the past 30 years lung cancer survival has not been improved. In the same period of time significant progress has been made in the results of treatment of many other cancers for example: breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. It may be connected with introduction of efficient screening tests. Lung cancer seems to be a disease for which screening could have great impact. In the 1970s trials evaluating chest roentgenograms and sputum cytology as screening modalities were conducted, but did not show reduction in lung cancer mortality. There have been several projects in which low-dose helical computed tomography was used. Many of them were non-randomized cohort studies and showed promising results with respect to sensitivity of computed tomography, but the real benefit, which is mortality reduction, must originate from randomized trials. The major breakthrough is the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), randomized trial conducted in USA, that demonstrated 20% mortality reduction in low-dose computed tomography group comparing to radiography group. Several randomized trials are ongoing in Europe. Researchers continue to seek new methods of screening such as autofluorescence bronchoscopy, advanced techniques of sputum analysis and techniques of molecular biology. © 2011 Via Medica. Source

Huszno J.,Klinika Onkologii Klinicznej i Doswiadczalnej | Nowara E.,Klinika Onkologii Klinicznej i Doswiadczalnej | Suwinski R.,II Klinika Radioterapii Centrum
Onkologia Polska | Year: 2011

The molecular targeted therapy is a new direction in systemic treatment of cancer patients. This drug acts on specific cancer cell structures - "molecular targets" such as receptors and tyrosine kinase - leading to a blockage in signal transduction and inhibition of proliferation or tumor regression. In spite of great selectivity, the molecular targeted therapy also causes toxicity. The aim of the intensively developing branch of science - pharmacogenetics - is to select patients, on the basis of their genotype, who achieve the greatest benefit from the treatment with the lowest risk of complications. In this article authors present results of the studies on the interrelatedness between genetic polymorphisms and treatment complications, as well as on the response of the tumor to monoclonal antibodies used in molecular targeted therapy. Copyright © 2011 Cornetis. Source

Huszno J.,Klinika Onkologii Klinicznej i Doswiadczalnej | Nowara E.,Klinika Onkologii Klinicznej i Doswiadczalnej | Suwinski R.,II Klinika Radioterapii
Nowotwory | Year: 2011

Pharmacogenetics is a rapidly developing area of pharmacology aimed at therapeutic individualization i.e. the identification of patients who are most likely to benefit from a given treatment with minimal side effects. Pharmacogenetics investigates individual variability which results from the presence of genetic polymorphisms, mutations and varied gene expression. In this study we concentrated on the influence of polymorphisms on the function of proteins which participate in drug transport and metabolism and on the mechanisms of DNA repair. These processes influence drug activity, the efficacy of therapy therapeutic and the possible side effects. The paper presents the pharmacogenetics of drugs commonly used in oncology, including the mechanisms of drug transport and metabolism with special interest placed on the polymorphisms of genes encoding phase I and II proteins for enzymes and genes encoding transporting proteins. Source

Huszno J.,Klinika Onkologii Klinicznej i Doswiadczalnej | Nowara E.,Klinika Onkologii Klinicznej i Doswiadczalnej | Suwinski R.,II Klinika Radioterapii
Onkologia Polska | Year: 2012

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) therapy (tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the EGFR, kinase inhibitors of BCR-ABL, VEGFR and PDGFR kinases inhibitors) selectively inhibit transmission pathway of signals essential for proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and formation of metastases. Due to the different toxicity profile and treatment response of the tumor new predictive factors are searching to select those patients who will most benefit from the treatment with lowest risk of side effects. This review discusses the results of pharmacogenetic studies that describes the influence of polymorphisms on toxicities and tumor response to treatment with application of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In the future, some of these polymorphisms can become predictive markers applicable in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Cornetis. Source

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