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Hradec Králové, Czech Republic

Petera J.,Klinika Onkologie a Radioterapie | Dusek L.,Institute Biostatistiky A Analyz
Klinicka Onkologie | Year: 2014

Background: Population ageing in developed countries associated with increasing cancer incidence in higher age categories becomes a serious challenge in oncology nowadays. Aim: To review the present policy of management of senior cancer patients and to outline strategies of its improvement Elderly patiens are generally undertreated if we address current treatment standards. The elderly population is heterogenous in terms of functional status, physical and psychical impairment, comorbidities, functional reserve, socioeconomic backgroud and geriatric symptoms. There is a lack of consensus on guidelines for elderly population due to underrepresentation of older patiens in clinical trials. Geriatric assessments could be a useful tool for medical decision making and adjusting treatment plan for a certain group of patients -those suitable for standard treatment, vulnerable group - advisable to treatment reduction, and frail patients - indicated for paliative approach. However, studies confirming effectiveness of this age-specific approach in comparison with routine clinical practice remain to be conducted. Conclusion: Clinical studies focused on senior cancer patients are urgently needed. Source

Kopecky J.,Klinika Onkologie a Radioterapie | Kopecky O.,II. Interni Klinika
Klinicka Onkologie | Year: 2010

NK cells are an important component of natural immunity, which provides a defence response against viruses, bacterial and parasitic intracellular pathogens and tumour cells. NK cells are capable of rapid responses without prior sensitization and cytotoxic response is independent of the presence of the antigens of the major histocompatibility system. NK cells produce a number of cytokines (e.g. INF-y, GM-CSF and TNF-β) and chemokines and in this way they regulate both the natural and acquired immune response. By contrast, NK cells are regulated both positively and negatively by cytokines and chemokines produced by other immune cells. Attention is focused on the possibility of influencing the tumour process by using cytokine- and chemokine-activated NK cells. In studies in mice models as well as in several clinical trials, it has been shown that the presence of cytotoxic cells in tumour stroma is associated with a more favourable prognosis of cancer. There is also plenty of evidence that in tumour stroma a number of cytokines and chemokines are produced which may have ambivalent effects. Source

Kostysyn R.,Neurochirurgicka Klinika | Pleskacova Z.,Klinika Onkologie a Radioterapie | Malek V.,Neurochirurgicka Klinika
Ceska a Slovenska Neurologie a Neurochirurgie | Year: 2015

Hemangioma is the most common primary benign hamartoma type spine tumor. Malignant degeneration has never been reported. In the majority of cases, this is an asymptomatic solitary lesion of the thoracic spine found incidentally during a radiographic examination. Only 1% of cases manifests clinically and this benign lesion is considered aggressive because of the expansive nature of the tumor and because it may cause pathological fracture of the vertebrae. Clinical symptoms then include dorsalgia and either root or spinal neurological symptoms. Radiological diagnosis is relatively easy because vertebral hemangioma is associated with quite typical graphic signs; graphic criteria to confirm the diagnosis of aggressive vertebral hemangioma have been clearly defined. The range of treatment options is very wide, from conservative treatment through frequently used vertebroplasty to radical surgical treatment. Embolization procedures, alcohol sclerotherapy and local radiotherapy are often used as complementary procedures. Aggressive vertebral hemangioma is a relatively rare diagnosis, so far there are no large cohorts or clinical studies from which it would be possible to determine an optimal therapeutic approach. Source

Slovacek L.,Klinika Onkologie a Radioterapie | Slovackova B.,Psychiatricka Klinika
Onkologie | Year: 2012

The authors report on a case of drug-induced hallucinatory syndrome after paclitaxel infusion in a 42-year-old woman with breast carcinoma treated with adjuvant chemotherapy AC-T. This case report highlights the potential risk of paclitaxel causing hallucinatory syndrome. At the same time it indicates the need to cooperate with the psychiatrist. Early symptomatic psychopharmacological treatment enabled the smooth completion of chemotherapy. Source

Richter I.,Onkologicke Oddeleni | Dvorak J.,Klinika Onkologie a Radioterapie | Bartos J.,Krajska Nemocnice Liberec A.s
Onkologie (Switzerland) | Year: 2013

Treatment of the rectal adenocarcinoma is multidisciplinary. Radiotherapy is the important component of the treatment. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is indicated in tumours T3-4 or in the case of positive lymph nodes. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and capecitabine are the most used cytostatik in combination with radiotherapy. The aim the neoadjuavnt treatment is attainment circumeferential radial margin (CRM) after total mesorectal excision (TME). Source

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