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Brno, Czech Republic

Current diagnosis of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cannot rest merely on the determination that it is NSCLC without providing any further specification. Accurate morphological classification of NSCLC and classification into individual subtypes (adenocarcinoma, large-cell carcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma...) as well as genetic testing are all required. When the morphological and molecular genetic diagnosis has been accurately established, patients with NSCLC can receive agents whose efficacy, while meeting certain criteria, offers a chance of improved survival. They include both drugs from the cytostatic group and those for biologically targeted therapy. The paper deals with those agents for which the amount of reimbursement for the first-line treatment of NSCLC has been determined in the Czech Republic. They are bevacizumab, pemetrexed and gefitinib.

Fiala O.,Onkologicka a radioterapeuticka klinika | Satankova M.,Klinika nemoci plicnich | Kultan J.,Klinika plicnich nemoci | Pesek M.,Klinika pneumologie | And 5 more authors.
Onkologie (Czech Republic) | Year: 2014

Introduction: Low-molecular-weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are modern, effective agents used to treat patients with advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Activating EGFR gene mutations predict a good effect of treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The goal of this study was to map the occurrence of EGFR gene mutations in patients with NSCLC in the Czech Republic. Methods: A total of 486 patients with advanced stage of NSCLC (stage IIIB and IV) of nonsquamous histological type were investigated for the presence of EGFR gene mutations at three pneumo-oncology centres. A comparison of distribution of the EGFR mutation according to sex, age, and smoking status was performed by means of Fisher's exact test. Results: EGFR gene mutation was demonstrated in 74 (15.2%) patients. Mutations were shown in 25 (8.8%) men vs. 49 (24.3%) women (p < 0.001), in 12 (6.7%) smokers vs. 20 (11.2%) ex-smokers vs. 38 (37.3%) non-smokers (p < 0.001), and in 32 (15.7%) patients under 65 years of age vs. 42 (14.9%) patients over 65 years of age (p = 0.898). Conclusion: EGFR gene mutations were shown in 15.2% of the patients examined, most commonly in female patients and non-smokers. The results obtained are well comparable with the data published to date.

Skrickova J.,Klinika nemoci plicnich | Frohlich K.,Institute biostatiky a analyzy | Kuhn M.,Institute biostatiky a analyzy | Bortlicek Z.,Institute biostatiky a analyzy | And 15 more authors.
Onkologie (Czech Republic) | Year: 2016

Lung carcinoma is among the leading cancers by incidence and mortality both worldwide and in the Czech Republic. In the recent years, there has been considerable progress in NSCLC treatment. Already at the time of diagnosis, efforts are made to establish the morphological diagnosis as precisely as possible and, when indicated, to perform genetic testing. This particularly applies to non-squamous NSCLC. In 2013, the efficacy and safety data of continuation maintenance monotherapy with pemetrexed were reported and, owing to the positive outcome, this treatment has been available in the Czech Republic since May 2013. Our paper presents a group of 134 evaluated patients who received the above-mentioned treatment. In real clinical practice in the Czech Republic, continuation maintenance therapy with pemetrexed achieved better results than the registration study, and the treatment was tolerated very well. So far, the median overall survival (OS) has been determined to be 23.5 months.

Potrepciakova S.,Klinika nemoci plicnich | Hrazdirova A.,Klinika nemoci plicnich | Skrickova J.,Klinika nemoci plicnich
Studia Pneumologica et Phthiseologica | Year: 2010

Besides the respiratory system, practically any tissues and organs may be affected by tuberculosis. It often has a non-specific course and it is difficult to diagnose. Extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis (TB) are less common than its pulmonary forms. In 2006, a total of 973 cases of TB were reported in the Czech Republic; of those, 88 % were pulmonary and 12 % were extrapulmonary forms. Of 871 cases reported in 2007, 91 % were pulmonary and 9 % extrapulmonary. The aim of the study ways to assess extrapulmonary forms of TB diagnosed and treated at the Department of Pulmonary Diseases and Tuberculosis in Brno in 2006 and 2007. These included tuberculosis of the lymph nodes, peritoneum, meninges, liver, urinary tract, skin, eye, intestine and tuberculous parotitis. In 2006, eleven patients were diagnosed with extrapulmonary tuberculosis at the department. Of those, 4 were males and 7 were females. Their mean age was 51.5 years. In 2007, eight patients (3 males, 5 females) were diagnosed with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, with a mean age of 60 years.

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