Olomouc, Czech Republic
Olomouc, Czech Republic

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Sova M.,Klinika plicnich nemoci | Sovova E.,I. Interni klinika | Hobzova M.,Klinika plicnich nemoci | Kamasova M.,I. Interni klinika | Kolek V.,Klinika plicnich nemoci
Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

This paper is discussing recent findings about links between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and arterial hypertension. It describes diagnostic approaches and also therapy of patients. It is describing options of pharmacological treatment and the influence of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on blood pressure level. © 2015, Japanese Society of Internal Medicine. All rights reserved.

Current diagnosis of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cannot rest merely on the determination that it is NSCLC without providing any further specification. Accurate morphological classification of NSCLC and classification into individual subtypes (adenocarcinoma, large-cell carcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma...) as well as genetic testing are all required. When the morphological and molecular genetic diagnosis has been accurately established, patients with NSCLC can receive agents whose efficacy, while meeting certain criteria, offers a chance of improved survival. They include both drugs from the cytostatic group and those for biologically targeted therapy. The paper deals with those agents for which the amount of reimbursement for the first-line treatment of NSCLC has been determined in the Czech Republic. They are bevacizumab, pemetrexed and gefitinib.

The most common lower respiratory tract infections include acute tracheobronchitis, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonias. A wide range of viruses, bacteria and higher forms of microorganisms may be the causative agents. Recently, there has been an increased incidence of atypical bacteria as well as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria that can cause serious septic conditions. Their clinical manifestations range from diseases with a mild course in otherwise healthy individuals to severe or sometimes even life-threatening conditions, particularly in elderly or multimorbid persons. The indications for antibiotic treatment must therefore be as rational as possible.

Fiala O.,Onkologicka a radioterapeuticka klinika | Satankova M.,Klinika nemoci plicnich | Kultan J.,Klinika plicnich nemoci | Pesek M.,Klinika pneumologie | And 5 more authors.
Onkologie (Czech Republic) | Year: 2014

Introduction: Low-molecular-weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are modern, effective agents used to treat patients with advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Activating EGFR gene mutations predict a good effect of treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The goal of this study was to map the occurrence of EGFR gene mutations in patients with NSCLC in the Czech Republic. Methods: A total of 486 patients with advanced stage of NSCLC (stage IIIB and IV) of nonsquamous histological type were investigated for the presence of EGFR gene mutations at three pneumo-oncology centres. A comparison of distribution of the EGFR mutation according to sex, age, and smoking status was performed by means of Fisher's exact test. Results: EGFR gene mutation was demonstrated in 74 (15.2%) patients. Mutations were shown in 25 (8.8%) men vs. 49 (24.3%) women (p < 0.001), in 12 (6.7%) smokers vs. 20 (11.2%) ex-smokers vs. 38 (37.3%) non-smokers (p < 0.001), and in 32 (15.7%) patients under 65 years of age vs. 42 (14.9%) patients over 65 years of age (p = 0.898). Conclusion: EGFR gene mutations were shown in 15.2% of the patients examined, most commonly in female patients and non-smokers. The results obtained are well comparable with the data published to date.

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