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Brno, Czech Republic

Sochor M.,Krajska Nemocnice Liberec A.s | Slama O.,Klinika Komplexni Onkologicke Pece
Klinicka Onkologie | Year: 2015

Pain is one of the most important and most frequent symptoms of malignancy. Its intensity and prevalence is growing with disease status. Pain should be present in early stage cancer patients also. Pain is, together with other symptoms (anorexia, nausea, depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances), factor of patients quality-of-life and proper therapy is responsible for overall patient satisfaction and activity. Right pain management is always multidimensional and pain should be assessed at each contact In review article we would like to bring some alerts of pain context in complexity of cancer and we would like to stress some forms of acute pain management.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of gastrointestinal tract. Oncogenic activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinases, KIT (75-80 %) and platelet- derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA, 10 %) play a crucial role in the molecular pathogenesis of GIST. Complete surgical resection is the standard treatment for localized GISTs, however, recurrence is observed in approximately a third of patients 2 years following resection. Better treatment strategies and targeted therapies have improved survival rates for patients with GIST significantly. Imatinib, the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has revolutionized the therapeutic landscape for GIST patients and remains the mainstay first-line clinical option for both unresectable and advanced GISTs, as well as for adjuvant treatment after resection of high risk GISTs. Sunitinib is indicated as second-line therapy. Regorafenib has been approved recently as third-line treatment of patients who progressed on or are intolerant to prior imatinib and sunitinib. Early identification of patients with suboptimal response to therapy and treatment failure, as well as intolerable toxicities, is an important issue of a multidisciplinary personalized treatment of patients with GIST.

Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) should receive all five drugs active in this disease during the overall course of their treatment. These drugs consist of three chemotherapeutic agents: 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV), irinotecan and oxaliplatin and two monoclonal antibody: bevacizumab directed against the vascular endothelial growth factor and the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor cetuximab or panitumumab. Treatment options for third-line therapy depend on what agents have been used in previous therapy. In patients with prior treatment with 5-FU, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan, treatment with the combination of cetuximab and irinotecan is an attractive option.

Petrakova K.,Klinika Komplexni Onkologicke Pece
Klinicka Onkologie | Year: 2013

It has become apparent that estrogen receptor (ER) -positive and -negative breast lesions are completely distinct diseases. Precursors of low-grade breast cancer are low-grade premalignant lesions, usually ER and progesterone receptor (PR) positive and HER2 negative. On the other hand, precursors of high-grade breast cancer are high-grade premalignant lesions, usually ER and PR negative and HER2 positive. Lobular neoplasia (LN) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are important from the clinical point of view. LN increases the risk of bilateral breast cancer. This is why the recommendation for the treatment of LN is very different - from just following-up up to bilateral mastectomy. The complete surgical excision of the lesion with negative margins is the usual treatment of DCIS. Several big randomized clinical trials showed the benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Some of them suppose that there is a group of patients who do not need adjuvant treatment. The benefit of adjuvant tamoxifen is clear only for patients with ER positive disease. The UK/ANZ study showed the benefit of tamoxifen only in patients without RT.

The case report describes an 81-year-old highly multimorbid patient with a locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the right nasal passage who, despite a transient reduction in the quality of life during concomitant radiotherapy with cetuximab, achieved long-term complete remission of the disease.

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