Klinika Komplexni Onkologicke Pece

Brno, Czech Republic

Klinika Komplexni Onkologicke Pece

Brno, Czech Republic
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Poprach A.,Klinika komplexni onkologicke pece | Lakomy R.,Masaryk University
Onkologie (Czech Republic) | Year: 2016

Although immunotherapy in patients with metastatic renal cancer is experiencing an unprecedented renaissance, the disease still remains incurable. The use of various checkpoint inhibitors and anti-tumour vaccines, however, leads to further prolongation of survival of patients with this condition. The results of phase III trials with the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab are already available, with the next ones being eagerly anticipated. Moreover, enrolment has been completed for the phase III ADAPT trial in which a targeted therapy is combined with an anti-tumour vaccine the results of the phase II trial with this therapy are very promising. The present review deals with both checkpoint inhibitors and some vaccines. Due to their marginal importance nowadays, treatment with cytokines is dealt with only briefly even though their use in combination with the existing treatment or at high doses in various genotypes of renal cancer cannot be excluded in the future.

Sochor M.,Krajska nemocnice Liberec a.s. | Slama O.,Klinika Komplexni Onkologicke Pece
Klinicka Onkologie | Year: 2015

Pain is one of the most important and most frequent symptoms of malignancy. Its intensity and prevalence is growing with disease status. Pain should be present in early stage cancer patients also. Pain is, together with other symptoms (anorexia, nausea, depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances), factor of patients quality-of-life and proper therapy is responsible for overall patient satisfaction and activity. Right pain management is always multidimensional and pain should be assessed at each contact In review article we would like to bring some alerts of pain context in complexity of cancer and we would like to stress some forms of acute pain management.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of gastrointestinal tract. Oncogenic activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinases, KIT (75-80 %) and platelet- derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA, 10 %) play a crucial role in the molecular pathogenesis of GIST. Complete surgical resection is the standard treatment for localized GISTs, however, recurrence is observed in approximately a third of patients 2 years following resection. Better treatment strategies and targeted therapies have improved survival rates for patients with GIST significantly. Imatinib, the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has revolutionized the therapeutic landscape for GIST patients and remains the mainstay first-line clinical option for both unresectable and advanced GISTs, as well as for adjuvant treatment after resection of high risk GISTs. Sunitinib is indicated as second-line therapy. Regorafenib has been approved recently as third-line treatment of patients who progressed on or are intolerant to prior imatinib and sunitinib. Early identification of patients with suboptimal response to therapy and treatment failure, as well as intolerable toxicities, is an important issue of a multidisciplinary personalized treatment of patients with GIST.

Petrakova K.,Klinika komplexni onkologicke pece
Onkologie (Switzerland) | Year: 2013

Bisphosphonates are commonly used in patients with breast cancer to reduce skeletal-related events in metastatic disease and to mitigate bone loss associated with adjuvant therapy. Preclinical studies have shown that bisphosphonates may directly inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Subsequently, trials of zoledronic acid have demonstrated prolonged disease-free survival in postmenopausal or otherwise estrogen-depleted women with early breast cancer. In the ABCSG-12 trial, the addition of twice-yearly zoledronic acid (4 mg IV) to adjuvant endocrine therapy improved disease-free survival in premenopausal women undergoing ovarian suppression. Similar results were observed in postmenopausal women receiving aromatase inhibitors in the ZO-FAST trial, and in women who were at least 5 years past menopause in the AZURE trial.

Petrakova K.,Klinika Komplexni Onkologicke Pece
Klinicka Onkologie | Year: 2013

It has become apparent that estrogen receptor (ER) -positive and -negative breast lesions are completely distinct diseases. Precursors of low-grade breast cancer are low-grade premalignant lesions, usually ER and progesterone receptor (PR) positive and HER2 negative. On the other hand, precursors of high-grade breast cancer are high-grade premalignant lesions, usually ER and PR negative and HER2 positive. Lobular neoplasia (LN) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are important from the clinical point of view. LN increases the risk of bilateral breast cancer. This is why the recommendation for the treatment of LN is very different - from just following-up up to bilateral mastectomy. The complete surgical excision of the lesion with negative margins is the usual treatment of DCIS. Several big randomized clinical trials showed the benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Some of them suppose that there is a group of patients who do not need adjuvant treatment. The benefit of adjuvant tamoxifen is clear only for patients with ER positive disease. The UK/ANZ study showed the benefit of tamoxifen only in patients without RT.

Background: Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are antisecretory agents that have been used to control hormonal syndromes associated with neuroendocrine tumors for more than 20 years. Recent phase III randomized, placebo controlled trials demonstrated their antiproliferative effects. The PROMID study showed that octreotide LAR (long-acting repeatable) treatment had anti-tumor effects. CLARINET, an international multicenter controlled study, provides new evidence that lanreotide has antiproliferative effects. Depot lanreotide significantly prolonged progression-free survival among patients with metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). Because GEP-NETs are biologically diverse in terms of primary tumor site and functional status, preventing progression can be difficult. Aim: This review summarizes data supporting the role of SSAs, in particular lanreotide, as antiproliferative agents for the treatment of patients with GEP-NETs. Conclusion: The CLARINET study is the most powerful (in sence of data, results, clinical aplication) randomized study of the antiproliferative effects of SSA in GEP-NET patients. The median lanreotide-associated progression-free survival in the CLARINET core study or in open-label extension study was 32.8 vs. 18 months for placebo. Thus, early treatment with lanreotide is expected to prolong progression-free survival. Lanreotide is now recommended for the treatment of patients with well-differentiated metastatic grade land grade 2 GEP-NETs (i.e., those with a Ki-67 proliferative index < 10%) located in the pancreas, small intestine, or in cases where the location of the primary tumor is unknown, regardless of the degree of liver involvement.

Cancer induced chronic pain affects great percentage of oncologic patients. Major subgroup of these patients also suffers from breakthrough pain which negatively influences their quality of life. Pharmacological or non-pharmacological approaches can be used to treat cancer pain. Recently we have been using new formula of transmucosal opioids. Their simple usage and quick pain relief represent an adequate medical form to treat breakthrough pain.

Pokrivcak T.,Klinika Komplexni Onkologicke Pece | Lakomy R.,Klinika Komplexni Onkologicke Pece | Vyzula R.,Klinika Komplexni Onkologicke Pece
Klinicka Onkologie | Year: 2016

Thanks to a multidisciplinary approach, testicular germinative tumors are now assigned to a group of highly curable oncologic diseases with favorable prognoses. Despite the gradual increase in the incidence of this type of cancer in recent years, mortality remains low. Yet, guidelines for postoperative treatment of stage i non-seminomatous germ cell testicular tumors remain inconsistent due to the low number of randomized studies. The probability of relapse is strongly associated with the occurrence of lymphangiogenesis. The period after primarily orchiectomy can be utilized for close monitoring, cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy, or retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. All variants of therapy offer a cure rate of about 99%. The use of adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, is associated with acute and late adverse effects. The effort to minimize side effects with preserving the lowest number of relapses resulted in the need for comparing the number of chemotherapy cycles and chemotherapy vs. retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. The aim of this review is to evaluate the different treatment modalities for stage I testicular germ cell tumors with respect to their efficacy and toxicity.

Tomasek J.,Klinika komplexni onkologicke pece
Onkologie (Czech Republic) | Year: 2014

Therapeutic algorithm of metastatic renal cancer is complex. There are often several treatment possibilities. Selection of the optimal treatment depends on the nature of the tumor, the patient's performance status, comorbidity and the drug potential toxicity.

Regulatory T-lymphocytes (Treg) are essential for regulation of immune homeostasis and prevention of autoimmune disease development. Regulatory T-cells prevent the onset of autoimmune diseases; they keep immune homeostasis and modulate immune response during infection. Their activity is precisely controlled. Regulatory T-cells belong to one group of immune cells, which can support tumor survival and growth. They realize their function through inhibition of effector T-cells and by regulation of tumor microenvironment through production of various soluble factors. Many publications have proven that the amount of Treg cells is elevated in both solid tumors and in hematologic malignancies. Nevertheless, little is known about mechanisms, which allow increase and maintenance of elevated Treg cells in cancer patients. In this review, we will focus, among others, on the description of function and phenotype of Treg cells, their modulation of humoral immune response and interaction with cancer stem cells. Current development of modern tumor immunotherapy allows new possibilities of influencing Treg cells function.

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