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Lebkowska A.,Klinika Endokrynologii
Pediatric endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism | Year: 2010

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 4-7% women in reproductive age. Insulin resistance and hiperinsulinemia are considered as main pathogenic factors. According to the published studies, PCOS is also prevalent in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In this review we present the potential mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of PCOS in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Chromogranin A (CgA) is regarded as a major, nonspecific neuroendocrine tumour (NET) marker. The results of CgA blood concentration, however, may actually be influenced by various factors or coexisting pathological conditions. Among the factors causing a substantial increase of the blood CgA concentration are: treatment with proton-pump inhibitors or H2 -receptor blockers, chronic atrophic gastritis (type A), impaired renal function, prostate cancer and BPH, and rheumatoid arthritis with high level of RF IgM. In addition, the sort of investigated biological material (whether it is serum or plasma) is of importance. There are also many conditions which may have a moderate or little influence on the concentration of CgA, among them are: inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), deteriorating liver function, untreated essential hypertension, heart failure, hypercortisolism, pregnancy, and, in some subjects, ingestion of a meal. Proper assessment of the CgA results requires detailed knowledge about various factors, drugs, and pathological conditions influencing its concentration in blood.

Most medical agents currently applied in osteoporosis therapy act by inhibiting bone resorption and reducing bone remodelling, i.e. they inhibit the process of bone mass loss by suppressing bone resorption processes. These drugs provide an ideal therapeutic option to prevent osteoporosis progression. They however have a rather limited usefulness when the disease has already reached its advanced stages with distinctive bone architecture lesions. The fracture risk reduction rate, achieved in the course of anti-resorptive therapy, is insufficient for patients with severe osteoporosis to stop the downward spiral of their quality of life (QoL) with a simultaneously increasing threat of premature death. The activity of the N-terminal fragment of 1-34 human parathormone (teriparatide - 1-34 rhPTH), a parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogue obtained via genetic engineering , is expressed by increased bone metabolism, while promoting new bone tissue formation by stimulating the activity of osteoblasts more than that of osteoclasts. The anabolic activity of PTH includes both its direct effect on the osteoblast cell line, and its indirect actions exerted via its regulatory effects on selected growth factors, e.g. IGF-1 or sclerostin. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the actual anabolic effects of PTH remain mostly still unclear. Clinical studies have demonstrated that therapeutic protocols with the application of PTH analogues provide an effective protection against all osteoporotic fracture types in post-menopausal women and in elderly men with advanced osteoporosis. Particular hopes are pinned on the possibility of applying PTH in the therapy of post-steroid osteoporosis, mainly to suppress bone formation, the most important pathological process in this regard. The relatively short therapy period with a PTH analogue (24 months) should then be replaced and continued by anti-resorptive treatment.

Chmiel-Perzynska I.,Katedra i Z aklad Medycyny Rodzinnej | Derkacz M.,Klinika Endokrynologii | Kowal A.,Studenckie Kolo Naukowe Badan Epidemiologicznych przy | Grywalska E.,Studenckie Kolo Naukowe Badan Epidemiologicznych przy
Family Medicine and Primary Care Review | Year: 2010

Background. OTC (over the counter) market is divided into two groups: drugs sold without a prescription and products without the status of drugs, which include inter alia mineral-vitamin preparation which have the status of dietary supplements. Material and methods. The study was conducted using the author's questionnaire containing 41 closed questions. The study included 194 individuals, 68 men (35.4%) and 124 (64.6%) women. The average age of the study group was 55.9 ± 13.7 years. 9.4% of respondents had elementary education, 28.1% vocational, 51.6% secondary education and 11% had university degree. Results. All the respondents confirmed purchasing OTC products which were sold without prescription. 92.2% of respondents said they spend monthly below 50 PLN on them. Among the three most frequently purchased OTC products people mentioned: analgesics and antipyretics, medicines for colds and mineral-vitamin preparations. Distribution of factors for the purchase of OTC was similar in all subgroups, regardless of education level of subjects. Among the factors to purchase them, respondents most commonly mentioned the recommendation of a pharmacist - 37.6%, continuous use of medicine - 23.2%, use of OTC by the family or friends - 16.5%, a price promotion - 8.8% and advertising - 6.7%. The decision of buying the OTC products was undertaken after consulting the doctor only by 3.1% of the respondents. Information on the preparation of OTC respondents mostly received from the pharmacist - 49% of respondents. Less frequently mentioned as a source of information were: family - 17%, friends - 11.9%, advertising, and flyers - up to 11.3%. Only 6.8% of those surveyed said they had knowledge of OTC which derives from the doctors. Conclusions. The use of OTC drugs is widespread. Doctors should have adequate knowledge of the OTC, and take into consideration using of these products by their patients. Patients should be properly educated about the rules concerning safe use of OTC products. © Wydawnictwo Continuo.

Slezak R.,Katedra i Zaklad Genetyki Akademii Medycznej | Laczmanski L.,Klinika Endokrynologii | Karpinski P.,Katedra i Zaklad Genetyki Akademii Medycznej | Reszczynska-Slezak D.,Katedra Poloznictwa i Ginekologii WNoZ Akademii Medycznej
Ginekologia Polska | Year: 2011

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of common hereditary risk factors for thrombophilia (mutations 1691G>A, 20210G>A and 677C>T variant in factor V Leiden (FV), prothrombin (FII) and MTHFR gene, respectively) - in a cohort of women with early pregnancy loss. Material and methods: Frequency of mutations in FV, FII and MTHFR was assessed by PCR-RFLP or minisequencing in a cohort of 313 women with a history of at least two miscarriages and the control group consisting of 200 women without obstetric complications. Results: Compared with controls, neither FV mutation (3.2% vs 3%; p=0.45) nor the MTHFR 677TT variant (8.4% vs 11.1%; p=0.58) was more prevalent in the patients. Mutation in FII gene was more frequent in the patients (3.5% vs 0.5%; p=0.03) when compared with controls, however, the frequency of this mutation in controls was lower than estimated frequency in the population. © Polskie Towarzystwo Ginekologiczne.

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