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Hannover, Germany

Fleisch A.,University of Zurich | Piechotta M.,Klinik fur Rinder | Bollwein H.,University of Zurich | Janett F.,University of Zurich
Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde

Fertility after treatment with Eazi-breed™ CIDR® G for 6 or 12 days outside the breeding season in Lacaune dairy sheep This study compares the fertility after short- and long-term synchronization using a progesterone in-travaginal device in Lacaune dairy sheep outside the breeding season. For the experiment 108 Lacaune sheep were treated with Eazi-breed™ CIDR® G intra-vaginal devices (Pfizer Animal Health, Zürich) for 12 days (Group L, n = 60) or 6 days (Group K, n = 48) in combination with eCG (Group L) or with eCG and 125 μg Cloprostenol (Group K) at device removal. Thereafter the ewes were kept together with rams for 60 days, ewes in estrus were recorded and the fertility was assessed after lambing. Blood progesterone concentration was measured at device application, withdrawal and 14 days later. Results show that neither treatment nor parity had an influence on estrus rate (Group L 91.7%, Group K 93.8%, nulli- and pluriparous animals 96.9% and 90.8%, respectively). Group L showed a tendency towards a better first cycle lambing rate and a significantly (P < 0.05) higher overall lambing rate compared to sheep of Group K (71.7% vs. 60.4% and 83.3% vs. 72.9%). Pluriparous ewes had higher (P < 0.05) lambing rates and greater (P < 0.05) numbers of lambs born per synchronized ewe than nulliparous sheep for the first cycle (75.0% vs. 46.9% and 1.4 ± 1.0 vs. 0.9 ± 1.1) as well as for the overall service period (92.1% vs. 46.9% and 1.7 ± 0.8 vs. 0.9 ± 1.1). Fourteen days after insert withdrawal progesterone concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in Group L than in Group K (7.7 ± 4.3 vs. 5.6 ± 2.7 ng/ mL) and in nulli- compared to pluriparous (9.1 ± 5.6 vs. 5.7 ± 2.1 ng/mL) ewes. In conclusion, the overall lambing rate was higher after long-term compared to short progesterone treatment and nulliparous ewes were less suitable for estrus induction outside the breeding season. © 2013 Verlag Hans Huber, Hogrefe AG, Bern A. Fleisch et al. Source

The group of environment-associated pathogens consists of bacteria which main reservoir is the environment. Coliform bacteria, Streptococcus uberis and enterococci belong to this group. Contamination takes place primarily between milking. However, infection occurs between milking as well as during milking. Due to a relatively short duration of infection, the herd prevalence is usually low. The bulk milk tank somatic cell count often is not increased because of frequent clinical mastitis. Strain differentiation typically reveals many different bacterial strains in a certain herd. However, there are also strains which have acquired the characteristics of cow-associated pathogens with a tendency to chronic infections. Because of their ubiquitous occurrence, cows constantly have to cope with environmental pathogens. Control measures include the prevention of new infection via reduction of contamination between and during milking. Important risk factors for contamination are the hygienic conditions in the barn and during milking. As to the latter, technical aspects such as vacuum stability and the risk of sudden air admission play a role. Furthermore, the local and systemic resistance are of importance, because they decide about the establishment and cause of infection. With regards to general resistance, stress-free housing conditions, adequate feeding (energy, fibre) and a good health management are necessary. With regards to the local resistance, acute and chronic teat changes which quite often can be linked to an inadequate milking procedure need to be considered. The dry period is a risk period for new infections, which can be prevented with long-term antibiotics or internal teat sealers. In summary, the control of mastitis caused by environmental pathogens requires a systematic approach. © M. & H. Schaper GmbH & Co. Source

Witt L.,Klinik fur Anasthesiologie und Intensivmedizin | Osthaus W.A.,Klinik fur Anasthesiologie und Intensivmedizin | Bunte C.,Klinik fur Anasthesiologie und Intensivmedizin | Teich N.,Klinik fur Anasthesiologie und Intensivmedizin | And 4 more authors.
Paediatric Anaesthesia

Background: The recommendations for perioperative maintenance fluid in children have been adapted from hypotonic to isotonic electrolyte solutions with lower glucose concentrations (1-2.5% instead of 5%) to avoid hyponatremia or hyperglycemia. Objective: The objective of this prospective animal study was to determine the margin of safety of a novel isotonic-balanced electrolyte solution with 1% glucose (BS-G1) in comparison with normal saline with 1% glucose (NS-G1) in the case of accidental hyperhydration with a focus on acid-base electrolyte balance, glucose concentration, osmolality and intracranial pressure in piglets. Methods: Ten piglets (bodyweight 11.8 ± 1.8 kg) were randomly assigned to receive either 100 ml·kg -1 of BS-G1 or NS-G1 within one hour. Before, during and after fluid administration, electrolytes, lactate, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, osmolality and acid-base parameters were measured. Results: Unlike BS-G1, administration of NS-G1 produced mild hyperchloremic acidosis (base excess BS-G1 vs NS-G1, baseline 1.9 ± 1.7 vs 2.9 ± 0.9 mmol·l -1, study end 0.2 ± 1.7 vs -2.7 ± 0.5 mmol·l -1, P < 0.05, chloride BS-G1 vs NS-G1 baseline 102.4 ± 3.4 vs 102.0 ± 0.7 mmol·l -1, study end 103.4 ± 1.8 vs 109.0 ± 1.4 mmol·l -1P < 0.05). The addition of 1% glucose led to moderate hyperglycemia (P < 0.05) with a concomitant increase in serum osmolality in both groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Both solutions showed a wide margin of safety in the case of accidental hyperhydration with less acid-base electrolyte changes when using BS-G1. This novel solution could therefore enhance patient's safety within the scope of perioperative volume management. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Grieger A.-S.,Mikrobiologie | Zoche-Golob V.,Mikrobiologie | Paduch J.-H.,Mikrobiologie | Hoedemaker M.,Klinik fur Rinder | Kromker V.,Mikrobiologie
Tierarztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Grosstiere - Nutztiere

Clinical mastitis as a frequently recurrent event can cause substantive economic loss on dairy farms. The reason for recurrent mastitis can be either a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland by a mastitis pathogen or a reinfection of a quarter or udder after bacteriological cure. The virulence properties of a mastitis pathogen and the cure odds of an individual cow determine the development of persistent infections. Clinical episodes may alternate with periods without symptoms in the course of persistent infections. Strategies to reduce cases of recurrent mastitis have to include improved treatment concepts and measures to decrease new infection rates. The present literature review summarises the knowledge of definitions, frequencies, causes and effects of recurrent mastitis. © Schattauer 2014. Source

Cording F.,Mikrobiologie der Fakultat II | Hoedemaker M.,Klinik fur Rinder | Kromker V.,Mikrobiologie der Fakultat II
Tierarztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Grosstiere - Nutztiere

Mastitis in cattle is an infection of the mammary gland caused by infection, toxins and/or trauma. Currently, it is assumed that there is a correlation between higher amounts of residual milk and the incidence of clinical mastitis. The amount of residual milk can be exa - mined using different methods. Higher amounts of residual milk may result from an insufficient teat condition and individual detachment settings of milking units. To date, scientific literature has already discussed the relationship between high amounts of residual milk, undermilking and the occurrence of clinical mastitis. The present paper reviews the current status of knowledge regarding residual milk and risk of mastitis. © 2013 Schattauer. Source

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