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Schmolke S.,Orthopadische Klinik der Medizinischen Hochschule Hanover im Diakoniekrankenhaus Annastift gGmbH | Zaremba D.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Biskup C.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Andreae A.,Klinik fur kleine Klauentiere und forensische Medizin und Ambulatorische Klinik | Pude F.,ETH Zurich
Fuss und Sprunggelenk | Year: 2015

Hintergrund: Material und Methoden: Ergebnisse: Schlussfolgerung: Background: Interference screws are state of the art of bone-tendon-bone fixation in anterior-cruciate-ligament (ACL) reconstruction. These screws normally consist of materials like different polylactic acids because of their biodegradability. In this paper our first investigation of machining interference screws made of bovine bones by means of an abrasive waterjet is presented. The material bone as an implant has the advantage to be resorbed and replaced by new own bone tissue. Material and methods: In this paper it is shown that an abrasive waterjet is able to machine the whole interference screw's geometry with different process's steps including drilling, turning, manufacturing a screw thread profile and an inside contour as a drive system. The developing of the thread profile by overlapping the abrasive waterjet's trace will be focused in this paper as well as the manufacturing of a hexagonal inside contour as a drive system. In a comparative study, the osseous integration of xenogenic bone and commercially available interference screws of poly (L-lactide) interference screws were comparatively tested in-vivo. As a key feature the screws were tested at a scale of 1: 1. Results: The bovine bone screws have been fully integrated into the host osseous bone within the examination time of 270 days. Already after 30 days ingrowing trabeculae could be detected in the screw body. Conclusions: Based on this positive experiences with bovine bone screws the development of screws for use in the forefoot or midface area seems to be possible. © 2015.


Humann-Ziehank E.,Klinik fur kleine Klauentiere und Forensische Medizin und Ambulatorische Klinik | Renko K.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Bruegmann M.L.,Lebensmittel und Veterinarinstitut Oldenburg | Devi V.R.,Institute For Pathologie | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

The impact of selenium (Se) in carcinogenesis is still debatable due to inconsistent results of observational studies, recent suspicion of diabetic side effects and e.g. dual roles of glutathione peroxidases (GPx). Previously, our group introduced long-term studies on lung carcinogenesis using the jaagtsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) induced ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) as an innovative animal model. The present report describes the results of sufficient (0.2. mg Se/kg dry weight (dw)) vs. marginal (<0.05. mg Se/kg dw) nutritional Se supply on cancer progression over a two-year period in 16 animals. Computed tomography (CT) evaluation of lung cancer progression, final pathological examination, evidence of pro-viral JSRV-DNA in lung, lymph nodes and broncho-alveolar lavage cells as well as biochemical analysis of Se, GPx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity in lung tissue were recorded. Additionally, immunohistochemical determination of GPx1 expression in unaffected and neoplastic lung cells was implemented.The feeding regime caused significant differences in Se concentration and GPx1 activity in lung tissue between groups, whereas TrxR activity remained unaffected. JSRV was evident in broncho-alveolar lavage cells, lung tissue and lung lymph nodes. Quarterly executed CT could not demonstrate differences in lung cancer proliferation intensity. Necropsy and histopathology substantiated CT findings. Immunohistochemical analysis of GPx1 in lung tissue suggested a coherency of GPx1 immunolabelling intensity in dependence of tumour size.It was concluded that the model proved to be suitable for long-term studies of lung cancer proliferation including the impact of modifiable nutritional factors. Proliferation of OPA was unaffected by marginal vs. sufficient nutritional Se supply. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


Baums C.G.,Institute For Mikrobiologie | Bruggemann C.,Institute For Mikrobiologie | Kock C.,Institute For Mikrobiologie | Beineke A.,Institute For Pathologie | And 2 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2010

Streptococcus suis is an important porcine pathogen causing meningitis and other invasive diseases in piglets of different ages. Application of S. suis serotype 2 bacterins to specific-pathogen-free (SPF) weaning piglets has been demonstrated to protect against the homologous serotype. However, autogenous S. suis bacterins are also applied to sows and suckling piglets in the field. Therefore, comparative evaluation of different bacterin immunization regimes, including sow vaccination, was performed in this study. The main objectives were to determine the immunogenicity of an S. suis bacterin in sows prepartum and its influence on active immunization of piglets. Experimental infection of 6- and 8-week-old weaning piglets was performed to elucidate protective efficacies. Humoral immune responses were investigated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measuring muramidase-released protein (MRP)-specific IgG titers and by opsonophagocytosis assays. Bacterin application elicited high MRP-specific IgG titers in the serum and colostrum of sows, as well as opsonizing antibodies. Piglets from vaccinated sows had significantly higher MRP-specific titers than respective piglets from nonvaccinated sows until 6 weeks postpartum. Vaccination of suckling piglets did not result in high MRP-specific titers nor in induction of opsonizing antibodies. Furthermore, neither vaccination of suckling nor of weaning piglets from immunized sows was associated with a prominent active immune response and protection at 8 weeks postpartum. However, protection was observed in respective 6-week-old weaning piglets, most likely because of protective maternal immunity. In conclusion, this study provides the first results suggesting protective passive maternal immunity for S. suis serotype 2 after bacterin vaccination of sows and a strong inhibitory effect on active immunization of suckling and weaning piglets, leading to highly susceptible growers. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Humann-Ziehank E.,Klinik fur kleine Klauentiere und Forensische Medizin und Ambulatorische Klinik | Renko K.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Mueller A.S.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Roehrig P.,Klinik fur kleine Klauentiere und Forensische Medizin und Ambulatorische Klinik | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

This study was performed to characterise key data of long-term ovine Se metabolism and to work out the best biomarker of Se status. An upgrade from marginal (<0.05. mg Se/kg diet, 'Se-') to sufficient (0.2. mg Se/kg diet, 'Se+') nutritional Se supply using sodium selenite was monitered biweekly by analysing Se concentration, glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) activity and routine biochemistry in blood/serum over 2 years. Se, Cu, Zn, cytosolic Gpx and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity were measured in the liver (biopsies/post-mortem). Se, Gpx, TrxR, glutathione-S-transferase-alpha (aGST) and iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio1) were analysed in the kidney, heart muscle and thyroid. Relative mRNA expression of hepatic aGST1 and Gpx1 was determined.Improvement of Se supply strongly increased serum and liver Se concentration within 10 and 20 days, respectively followed by a plateau. Whereas the achievement of a maximum whole blood Gpx activity was reached after 3 months, serum Gpx3 activity increased with high variations. Hepatic Gpx activity reached a maximum during days 100-200, decreasing thereafter. Distinct group differences in Se and cytosolic Gpx activity were evident in all organs (except Se in kidney). TrxR and Dio1 activity was affected only in the liver. The Se- sheep showed an ongoing decrease in serum Se concentration within 2 years, whereas liver Se remained almost unaffected. High relative Gpx1 mRNA expression in the Se+ group was consensual to high hepatic Gpx activity. Relative mRNA expression of hepatic aGST1 was higher in the Se- sheep. Clinical signs and abnormalities in routine biochemistry were absent.In summary, the best biomarker of Se deprivation and nutritional Se upgrade, respectively was Se in serum. Moreover, hepatic Se concentrations reliably reflected the upgrade of Se supply within days. Whole blood Gpx reacts slowly depending on newly formed erythrocytes restricting its diagnostic use. Vital organs are affected by Se deficiency due to a decrease of cytosolic Gpx activity attenuating the antioxidative system. Cellular up-regulation of aGST1 mRNA expression in the Se- group is assumed to partially compensate for the decreased antioxidant defence due to a loss in Gpx activity. This sheep model appears advantageous for long-term studies on sub-clinical metabolic effects in experimental modifiable nutritional Se supply. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


Humann-Ziehank E.,Klinik fur kleine Klauentiere und Forensische Medizin und Ambulatorische Klinik | Ganter M.,Klinik fur kleine Klauentiere und Forensische Medizin und Ambulatorische Klinik | Michalke B.,Helmholtz Center Munich
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2016

This study was performed to characterise selenium (Se) and Se species in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of sheep and its relation to the respective Se concentrations in serum. Paired samples from 10 adult sheep were used for the study. Five sheep were fed a diet with a marginal Se concentration of <0.05mg Se/kg diet dry weight (dw, Se-), and five animals were fed the same diet supplemented with sodium selenite revealing a concentration of 0.2mg Se/kg diet dw (Se+). The feeding strategy was conducted for two years; The results on metabolic effects were published previously. At the end of the feeding period, paired samples of serum and CSF were collected and analysed using ion exchange chromatography inductively coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry (IEC-ICP-DRC-MS) technique for total Se concentration and concentrations of Se species. Albumin concentrations were analysed additionally.The feeding strategy caused significant differences (p<0.01) in serum Se concentrations with 33.1±5.11μg Se/l in the Se- group and 96.5±18.3μg Se/l in the Se+ group, respectively. The corresponding total Se concentrations in CSF were 4.38±1.02μg Se/l and 6.13±1.64μg Se/l in the Se- and the Se+ group, respectively, missing statistical significance (p=0.077). IEC-ICP-DRC-MS technique was able to differentiate the Se species selenoprotein P-bound Se (SePP), selenomethionine, glutathione peroxidase-bound Se (Se-GPx), selenocystine, thioredoxin reductase-bound Se, ovine serum albumin-bound Se (Se-OSA), SeIV and SeVI in ovine serum and CSF. Quantitatively, SePP is the main selenoprotein in ovine serum followed by Se-GPx. The CSF/blood ratio of albumin (QAlbumin) reflected a physiological function of the blood-CSF barrier in all sheep. QSe-species were higher than QAlbumin both feeding groups, supporting the hypothesis of local production of Se species in the brain. Significant positive regression lines for CSF vs. serum were found for albumin and Se-OSA only, suggesting a role of albumin to convey Se across the blood-CSF barrier. The ovine model, together with the IEC-ICP-DRC-MS technique to characterise the Se species, might be a worthwhile model for further studies as repeated sample collection as well as modification of the nutritional status is feasible and effective. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.


Humann-Ziehank E.,Klinik fur Kleine Klauentiere und Forensische Medizin und Ambulatorische Klinik | Menzel A.,Klinik fur Kleine Klauentiere und Forensische Medizin und Ambulatorische Klinik | Roehrig P.,Klinik fur Kleine Klauentiere und Forensische Medizin und Ambulatorische Klinik | Schwert B.,Klinik fur Kleine Klauentiere und Forensische Medizin und Ambulatorische Klinik | And 2 more authors.
Metallomics | Year: 2014

This study was performed to characterise the response of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) in bacterial-induced porcine acute phase reaction (APR). Twenty piglets were challenged by aerosolic infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A.pp.) serotype 2, ten piglets serving as controls. Blood sampling was done initially and at day 4 and 21 after infection, collection of liver tissue was done at day 21 (autopsy). A.pp.-infection caused fever and respiratory symptoms. APR at day 4 after infection was marked by an increase in total white blood cells, granulocytes and monocytes in whole blood samples and an increase in globulin/albumin ratio (G/A), α2-globulins, C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin (Cp), Cu and Se in serum. Concurrently, there was a decrease in haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) in whole blood as well as a decrease in albumin, transferrin, total iron binding capacity and Fe in serum and Zn in plasma. The subacute stage at day 21 was characterised by progressively increased concentrations of G/A, β-globulins and γ-globulins reflecting the specific immune reaction. Hb and PCV showed further decreases, all other parameters returned to the initial concentrations. Glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma and liver tissue remained unaffected by A.pp.-infection. The liver concentration (day 21) of Zn was found to be higher, that of Se was lower in the A.pp.-group, whereas hepatic concentrations of Cu and Fe were not affected by A.pp.-infection. In summary, the acute and subacute stages of A.pp.-infection were accurately characterised by the APR-related parameters. Se was only marginally affected by the A.pp.-infection. The elevated plasma Cu concentration may be a side effect of the transient hepatic induction of Cp synthesis. Zn responded, being distinctly reduced in plasma and probably having been sequestered in the liver tissue. Reduction in serum Fe can be regarded as an unspecific defence mechanism in A.pp.-infection to withdraw Fe from bacterial acquisition systems. © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Strauch-Surken L.,Klinik Fur Kleine Klauentiere Und Forensische Medizin Und Ambulatorische Klinik | Wendt M.,Klinik Fur Kleine Klauentiere Und Forensische Medizin Und Ambulatorische Klinik
Tierarztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Grosstiere - Nutztiere | Year: 2015

Objective: On a conventionally managed piglet-producing farm, novel infrared (IR) heating plates for piglets in the farrowing pens were tested for their suitability and compared with common warm-water (WW) heating plates. Material and methods: In total, 134 litters (summer n = 82, winter n = 52) were investigated, which were housed on IR or WW heating plates, respectively, with or without an extra cover plate (groups 1-4). To determine the influence of the different heat sources, the wound healing after castration and tail docking, the umbilical regression and the weight gain of the piglets were investigated. Additionally, the lying behavior of the piglets and the position of the sows' udder at the time of farrowing were examined with regard to the heating plates. Furthermore, the energy consumption and costs were compared. Results: The piglets housed on IR heating plates displayed better wound healing after castration and tail docking than the piglets housed on WW plates. The best results were obtained in piglets kept on IR heating plates with an extra cover plate. In addition, significant benefits were demonstrated for the usage of IR heating plates regarding umbilical regression. The piglets kept on IR heating plates had a slightly better weight gain in summer, whereas there were no differences between groups during winter. The lying behavior in the creep areas was similar in all groups. In general, with increasing age the percentage of time piglets spent in the lying position on the plates decreased. The percentage of time lying on the plates was higher in winter than in summer. At farrowing, 74.6% of all investigated sows directed their udder towards the heating plates. With the IR heating plates, this behavior occurred significantly more often. The energy consumption (kWh) per litter was significantly lower for the IR heating plates (electric power) both in winter and summer in comparison with the WW plates (gas). The energy costs were comparable in summer, but were higher for the IR heating plates in winter. Conclusion and clinical relevance: IR radiation of heating plates has a positive influence on wound healing after castration and tail docking as well as on umbilical regression. In addition, the lying behavior of sows at farrowing is influenced by the IR radiation. Despite the lower energy consumption of the IR heating plates, the most profitable system has to be determined individually for each farm. © Schattauer 2015.


Humann-Ziehank E.,Klinik fur kleine Klauentiere und forensische Medizin und Ambulatorische Klinik
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2016

Diseases related to copper, selenium or iron overload or deficiency are common and well-described in large animal veterinary medicine. Some of them certainly have the potential to serve as useful animal models for ongoing research in the field of trace elements. Obvious advantages of large animal models compared to laboratory animal models like rats and mice are the option of long-term, consecutive examinations of progressive deficient or toxic stages and the opportunity to collect various, high volume samples for repeated measurements. Nevertheless, close cooperation between scientific disciplines is necessary as scientists using high sophisticated analytical methods and equipment are not regularly in touch with scientists working with large animal diseases. This review will give an introduction into some typical animal diseases related to trace elements and will present approaches where the animal diseases were used already as a model for interdisciplinary research. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH


PubMed | Klinik fur kleine Klauentiere und forensische Medizin und Ambulatorische Klinik
Type: | Journal: Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS) | Year: 2016

Diseases related to copper, selenium or iron overload or deficiency are common and well-described in large animal veterinary medicine. Some of them certainly have the potential to serve as useful animal models for ongoing research in the field of trace elements. Obvious advantages of large animal models compared to laboratory animal models like rats and mice are the option of long-term, consecutive examinations of progressive deficient or toxic stages and the opportunity to collect various, high volume samples for repeated measurements. Nevertheless, close cooperation between scientific disciplines is necessary as scientists using high sophisticated analytical methods and equipment are not regularly in touch with scientists working with large animal diseases. This review will give an introduction into some typical animal diseases related to trace elements and will present approaches where the animal diseases were used already as a model for interdisciplinary research.


PubMed | Klinik fur kleine Klauentiere und Forensische Medizin und Ambulatorische Klinik
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS) | Year: 2013

This study was performed to characterise key data of long-term ovine Se metabolism and to work out the best biomarker of Se status. An upgrade from marginal (<0.05 mg Se/kg diet, Se-) to sufficient (0.2mg Se/kg diet, Se+) nutritional Se supply using sodium selenite was monitered biweekly by analysing Se concentration, glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) activity and routine biochemistry in blood/serum over 2 years. Se, Cu, Zn, cytosolic Gpx and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity were measured in the liver (biopsies/post-mortem). Se, Gpx, TrxR, glutathione-S-transferase-alpha (aGST) and iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio1) were analysed in the kidney, heart muscle and thyroid. Relative mRNA expression of hepatic aGST1 and Gpx1 was determined. Improvement of Se supply strongly increased serum and liver Se concentration within 10 and 20 days, respectively followed by a plateau. Whereas the achievement of a maximum whole blood Gpx activity was reached after 3 months, serum Gpx3 activity increased with high variations. Hepatic Gpx activity reached a maximum during days 100-200, decreasing thereafter. Distinct group differences in Se and cytosolic Gpx activity were evident in all organs (except Se in kidney). TrxR and Dio1 activity was affected only in the liver. The Se- sheep showed an ongoing decrease in serum Se concentration within 2 years, whereas liver Se remained almost unaffected. High relative Gpx1 mRNA expression in the Se+ group was consensual to high hepatic Gpx activity. Relative mRNA expression of hepatic aGST1 was higher in the Se- sheep. Clinical signs and abnormalities in routine biochemistry were absent. In summary, the best biomarker of Se deprivation and nutritional Se upgrade, respectively was Se in serum. Moreover, hepatic Se concentrations reliably reflected the upgrade of Se supply within days. Whole blood Gpx reacts slowly depending on newly formed erythrocytes restricting its diagnostic use. Vital organs are affected by Se deficiency due to a decrease of cytosolic Gpx activity attenuating the antioxidative system. Cellular up-regulation of aGST1 mRNA expression in the Se- group is assumed to partially compensate for the decreased antioxidant defence due to a loss in Gpx activity. This sheep model appears advantageous for long-term studies on sub-clinical metabolic effects in experimental modifiable nutritional Se supply.

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