Energy intake, food quantity and frequency of consumption during main meals and snacks in normal weight subjects [Energieaufnahme, Essensmenge und Verzehrshäufigkeit bei Haupt-und Zwischenmahlzeiten Normalgewichtiger]
Schusdziarra V.,Klinik fur Ernahrungsmedizin |
Kellner M.,Klinik fur Ernahrungsmedizin |
Mittermeier J.,Klinik fur Ernahrungsmedizin |
Hausmann M.,Klinik fur Ernahrungsmedizin |
Erdmann J.,Klinik fur Ernahrungsmedizin
Aktuelle Ernahrungsmedizin | Year: 2010
Purpose The recent National German Survey of Dietary Habits II has examined food intake in a large representative cohort of the population. It does however, not distinguish between normal weight and obese subjects. Recently we have presented food intake data in a group of 280 overweight and obese patients. For a better evaluation of these data we have analyzed food intake in a group of normal weight subjects with similar age and gender. Methods 1.400 food diaries of 100 normal weight subjects were evaluated that were recorded during a 14 day period. Results Mean daily energy intake was 1.746±16.1kcal and food quantity was 1.074±9.8g. Additionally, 288±8kcal were consumed by energy containing beverages. The greatest contribution to energy intake came from bread (18.1%) followed by cake (15.9%) and carbohydrates (8.1%) such as pasta, rice and potatoes. Despite their low energy density fruit (3.7%) and vegetables (1.6%) were on 8 th and 18 th position of the 32 evaluated food items, respectively. Energy intake was due to the quantity of actually consumed meals, the energy density of the various food items and the frequency of food consumption. Significant differences were observed in relation to gender. Food items with high energy density (2.5kcal/g) contributed most to daily energy intake while they were responsible for only 25% of daily food quantity. 60% of total daily food quantity was due to food items with low energy density (1.5kcal/g). With regard to single meals lunch and dinner contributed most to energy intake, followed by breakfast and the 3 snack meals. The food groups contributing most to energy intake during the respective meals were during breakfast bread in combination with butter, marmalade and honey, cereals and cake. During lunch and dinner meat and carbohydrate accompaniments or bread together with cheese and sausages and also cake were the major energy sources. During snacks, chocolate, nuts, cake, fruit and yoghurt had the greatest relevance. Conclusion These data provide insight into the eating habits of a group of middle-aged normal weight subjects during single meals and the whole day. In comparison to the previously reported data of obese patients no major differences of food and energy intake were observed. This supports the notion that the problem of weight gain is due to an individual imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, that can not be generalized. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.