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Washington, DC, United States

Grahame T.J.,U.S. Department of Energy | Klemm R.,Klemm Analysis Group | Schlesinger R.B.,Pace University
Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association's Annual Conference and Exhibition, AWMA | Year: 2014

There have been considerable reductions of particulate vehicular emissions (including black carbon (BC), under legislation and regulations predating and including the Clean Air Act, which deal with reducing vehicular emissions of all types. A presentation covers the reductions in San Francisco annual BC concentrations over time; assessments of BC and diesel emissions; representation of diesel particles and their formation; sources of ambient BC in US; mobile sources of BC; risks for those living close to major urban roads; monitoring of multiple PM2.5 species, including BC/EC; cancer risks from air toxics, including diesel particulate matter; BC associated with reduced cognition; and EPA criteria for judging casuality of PM2.5. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the AWMA's 107th Annual Conference & Exhibition (Long Beach, CA 6/24-27/2014). Source


Grahame T.J.,U.S. Department of Energy | Klemm R.,Klemm Analysis Group | Schlesinger R.B.,Pace University
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association | Year: 2014

A review covers the recent major current regulatory and scientific assessments of black carbon/elemental carbon (BC/EC) diesel emissions; how the knowledge base for the health effects of BC has changed over the years in the US, Canada, and Western Europe, relevant toxicology of different PM2.5 species, especially BC, health outcomes from BC exposure with regard to all cause, cardiovascular, and cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, as well as birth outcomes, cognition, and lung cancer; and the emerging literature concerning health effects of incompletely combusted carbonaceous species (biomass and residential coal use) in the developing world. Source

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