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Menghraj S.J.,KK Womens and Childrens Hospital
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2012

The objective of this article is to provide an updated and comprehensive review on current perioperative anaesthetic management of paediatric patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) coming for non-cardiac surgery. Search of terms such as "anaesthetic management," "congenital heart disease" and "non-cardiac surgery" was carried out in KKH eLibrary, PubMed, Medline and Google, focussing on significant current randomised control trials, case reports, review articles and editorials. Issues on how to tailor perioperative anaesthetic management on cases with left to right shunt, right to left shunt and complex heart disease are discussed in this article. Furthermore, the author also highlights special considerations such as pulmonary hypertension, neonates with CHD coming for extracardiac surgery and the role of regional anaesthesia in children with CHD undergoing non-cardiac operation. Source

Tan K.H.,KK Womens and Childrens Hospital
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Acoustic stimulation of the fetus has been suggested to improve the efficiency of antepartum fetal heart rate testing. To assess the advantages and disadvantages of the use of fetal vibroacoustic stimulation in conjunction with tests of fetal wellbeing. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013). All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials assessing the merits of the use of fetal vibroacoustic stimulation in conjunction with tests of fetal wellbeing. All review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Authors of published and unpublished trials were contacted for further information. Altogether 12 trials with a total of 6822 participants were included. Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation reduced the incidence of non-reactive antenatal cardiotocography test (nine trials; average risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 0.81). Vibroacoustic stimulation compared with mock stimulation evoked significantly more fetal movements when used in conjunction with fetal heart rate testing (one trial, RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.29). Vibroacoustic stimulation offers benefits by decreasing the incidence of non-reactive cardiotocography and reducing the testing time. Further randomised trials should be encouraged to determine not only the optimum intensity, frequency, duration and position of the vibroacoustic stimulation, but also to evaluate the efficacy, predictive reliability, safety and perinatal outcome of these stimuli with cardiotocography and other tests of fetal wellbeing. Source

Sia A.T.,KK Womens and Childrens Hospital
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Bupivacaine is an amide local anaesthetic used in hyperbaric and isobaric forms. These are administered intrathecally into the spine to provide regional anaesthesia for caesarean section. Several trials have compared hyperbaric and isobaric bupivacaine but none have conclusively shown benefit of either. This systematic review aimed to summarize the effectiveness and safety of hyperbaric versus isobaric bupivacaine in providing anaesthesia for caesarean section. We considered the adequacy of anaesthesia for completion of caesarean section and the need for interventions to treat complications. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2011) and EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2011). We handsearched journals. We imposed no language restriction. We reran our search in the above databases from January 2011 to January 2013; the studies are awaiting assessment and will be dealt with when we update the review. We included all randomized controlled trials involving parturients undergoing spinal anaesthesia for elective caesarean section that compared the use of hyperbaric with isobaric bupivacaine. Two authors independently extracted the data. The data that were extracted included the number of events and the sample sizes in both the intervention and control groups. For continuous outcomes, we extracted mean and standard deviation.We reported odds ratios and risk ratios (RR) for binary outcomes and mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes. We included six studies with a total of 394 patients in this review. Anaesthesia performed with hyperbaric bupivacaine appeared to be less likely to need conversion to general anaesthesia (two studies, 158 patients included in meta-analysis; RR 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 to 0.94). There was no difference in the need for supplemental analgesics. The time till sensory block to the T4 level was also shorter with hyperbaric bupivacaine (two studies, 126 patients; MD -1.06 minutes, 95% CI -1.80 to -0.31). There were no other significant differences between the two anaesthetics. The criteria for conversion to general anaesthesia should be clearly defined in future research. This review found that intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine had a more rapid onset of sensory blockade at the T4 level than isobaric bupivacaine. It may also result in less need for conversion to general anaesthesia and supplemental analgesia. However, due to the rarity of this outcome, variability in the dose, use of adjuvant drugs and differences in the technique used for regional anaesthesia the evidence is weak. Any apparent advantage of hyperbaric bupivacaine needs to be confirmed in larger randomized trials. There were no differences in the adverse effects studied. Source

Lam K.Y.,KK Womens and Childrens Hospital
Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong) | Year: 2012

To assess outcome of 6 juvenile patients with osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the ankle treated conservatively. Records of 4 males and one female aged 10.8 to 14.1 (mean, 12.3) years who underwent cast immobilisation and/or restriction of physical activities for OCD of the talus (4 on the left and 2 on the right) were reviewed. OCD lesions were graded using the Berndt and Harty classification. Functional outcome was assessed using the ankle-hindfoot score of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were assessed according to the Higuera classification. The mean follow-up period was 30.5 (range, 11-63) months. The mean ankle-hindfoot score was 90 (range, 86-100). Radiological resolution of OCD was noted in 2 ankles, although all ankles showed some degree of healing. All patients had resolution of pain after a mean of 7 (range, 3-12) months. According to the Higuera classification, clinical outcome was excellent in one and good in 5 ankles, whereas radiological outcome was excellent in 2, good in 2, and fair in 2 ankles. In one patient, the OCD of the right posteromedial talar dome resolved spontaneously. Almost all patients achieved good functional outcome after conservative management, regardless of the presence of radiological evidence of healing. Surgery should only be performed if the OCD is unstable. Source

Chou A.C.C.,National University of Singapore | Mahadev A.,KK Womens and Childrens Hospital
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics | Year: 2016

Background: In the treatment of pediatric osteoarticular infections, early transition to oral antibiotics is desirable to shorten hospital stays and complications of prolonged intravenous therapy. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase reactant with a short half-life and is utilized at our institution to monitor progress and determine the transition to oral antibiotics. We hypothesized that patients can be safely transitioned from parenteral antibiotics to oral antibiotics when patients improve clinically and CRP halves over a period of 4 days. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of all pediatric patients between the ages of 1 month and 18 years admitted and treated for acute bacterial osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis at the authors' institution. We recorded all relevant data, inpatient progress, and outpatient follow-up. Results: Thirty-seven patients fulfilled the selection criteria and were reviewed for this study. Patients were an average of 8.37±4.91 years old. Surgery was performed in 33 patients (89.2%). The average duration of intravenous antibiotics was 11.00±5.61 days and the average duration of oral antibiotics was 28.76±8.69 days, with an average total duration of antibiotics of 39.16±9.08 days. The average peak CRP was 156.91±97.81 mg/L and the average CRP at discharge was 24.94±22.36 mg/L. Thirty-four patients (91.89%) experienced a 50% decline in CRP over 4 days. Of these patients, only 1 (2.94%) went on develop complications in the follow-up period. The average hospitalization period was 11.50±6.55 days. The average duration of follow-up was 7.83±6.56 months. Conclusions: We found that the combination of clinical improvement and a specific reduction of 50% in CRP levels over 4 days, or 5 CRP half lives, could be used to determine when to transition children with osteoarticular infections from parenteral to oral therapy. Complicated outcomes were associated with negative cultures, longer hospitalizations, and persistently elevated CRP levels. Level of Evidence: Level IV-Case Series. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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