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Phoon J.W.L.,KK Women and Childrens Hospital | Kanalingam D.,Singapore General Hospital | Chua H.L.,Singapore General Hospital
Singapore Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Adrenal gland tumours in pregnancy are very rare occurrences and have highly variable clinical presentations. The timely diagnosis of adrenal tumours in pregnancy is extremely important, as failure to do so may lead to fatality. As there is limited published literature on adrenal tumours in pregnancy and no consensus on its management, the management of such patients with regard to medical and surgical treatments, as well as timing of delivery, must therefore be individualised and carried out with multidisciplinary expertise. We present two cases of adrenal tumours in pregnancy, both with favourable outcomes and variable gestations. Our first and second cases discuss a large phaeochromocytoma and a cortisol-secreting adrenal cortical adenoma in pregnancy, respectively. Source


Kirk P.,Imperial College London | He T.,Imperial College London | Anderson L.J.,Imperial College London | Roughton M.,Imperial College London | And 20 more authors.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging | Year: 2010

Purpose: To examine the reproducibility of the single breathhold T2* technique fromdifferent scanners, after installation of standardmethodology in five international centers. Materials and Methods: Up to 10 patients from each center were scanned twice locally for local interstudy reproducibility of heart and liver T2*, and then flown to a central MR facility to be rescanned on a reference scanner for intercenter reproducibility. Interobserver reproducibility for all scans was also assessed. Results: Of the 49 patients scanned, the intercenter reproducibility for T2* was 5.9% for the heart and 5.8% for the liver. Local interstudy reproducibility for T2* was 7.4% for the heart and 4.6% for the liver. Interobserver reproducibility for T2* was 5.4% for the heart and 4.4% for the liver. Conclusion: These data indicate that T2* MR may be developed into a widespread test for tissue siderosis providing that well-defined and approved imaging and analysis techniques are used. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Lim F.S.,National Healthcare Group Polyclinics | Koh M.T.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Tan K.K.,Tuanku Jaafar Hospital | Chan P.C.,National University Hospital Singapore | And 7 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: The immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with routine childhood vaccines were evaluated among infants from Singapore and Malaysia, where PHiD-CV has been licensed.Methods: In the primary vaccination phase, 298 infants from Singapore and 168 infants from Malaysia were randomised to receive the Phase III Clinical (Clin) or the Commercial (Com) lot of PHiD-CV at 2, 3, and 5 months of age. In the booster vaccination phase, 238 toddlers from Singapore received one dose of the PHiD-CV Commercial lot at 18-21 months of age. Immune responses to pneumococcal polysaccharides were measured using 22F-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and functional opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assay and to protein D, using ELISA.Results: Immune responses induced by primary vaccination with the PHiD-CV Commercial lot were non-inferior to the Phase III Clinical lot in terms of adjusted antibody geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratios for each vaccine pneumococcal serotype and protein D. For each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, ≥93.6% and ≥88.5% of infants from Malaysia and Singapore had post-primary vaccination antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL and OPA titres ≥8, in the Clin and Com groups, respectively. For each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, ≥60.8% and ≥98.2% of toddlers from Singapore had pre- and post-booster antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL, in the Clin and Com groups, respectively. All children, except one, had measurable anti-protein D antibodies and the primary and booster doses of the co-administered vaccines were immunogenic. The incidence of each grade 3 solicited symptom was ≤11.1% in both study phases. No serious adverse events considered causally related to vaccination were reported throughout the study.Conclusions: PHiD-CV given as three-dose primary vaccination to infants in Singapore and Malaysia and booster vaccination to toddlers in Singapore was shown to be immunogenic with a clinically acceptable-safety profile.This study has been registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.govNCT00808444 and NCT01119625. © 2014 Lim et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Lim F.P.M.,Singapore National Eye Center | Soh S.Y.,KK Women and Childrens Hospital | Iyer J.V.,Singapore National Eye Center | Tan A.M.,KK Women and Childrens Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | Year: 2013

Purpose: To analyze the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes for patients with retinoblastoma in Singapore from 1997 to 2010. Methods: Medical records of 51 patients (67 eyes) diagnosed as having retinoblastoma were analyzed. Data on laterality, genetics, presentation, disease severity, treatment, and prognosis were collected. Results: The mean age of presentation was 25.7 ± 19.9 months. Sixteen (31.4%) of the patients had bilateral disease, of whom 2 had an associated pineal tumor. Leukocoria was the most common sign. Two had metastasis at diagnosis. Only 3 patients (5.9%) had a family history. Using the International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classifi cation, 6.0% were Group A, 6.0% were Group B, 3.0% were Group C, 38.8% were Group D, and 49.2% were Group E. Chemotherapy and focal therapy were administered for 4 of 35 (12.9%) patients with unilateral retinoblastoma (50% had successful globe preservation) and 13 of 16 (81.3%) patients with bilateral retinoblastoma (42.3% had successful globe preservation). Overall, globe preservation was achieved in 100% of Groups A, B, and C, and 23.1% of Group D cases. The 5-year survival rate overall, for unilateral retinoblastoma, and for bilateral retinoblastoma was 91%, 97%, and 76% respectively. Conclusion: The overall 5-year survival rate is comparable to international data in most developed countries. However, most patients presented with advanced disease, making the rate of globe preservation lower than in some developed countries. Better education of the public and healthcare professionals may increase awareness and enable early detection of the disease. © SLACK Incorporated. Source


Chay W.-Y.,National Cancer Center | Chew S.-H.,KK Women and Childrens Hospital | Ong W.-S.,National Cancer Center | Busmanis I.,Singapore General Hospital | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis in the advanced stages and responds poorly to conventional chemotherapy. We aim to elucidate the clinicopathological factors and incidence of HER2 expression of this cancer in a large Asian retrospective cohort from Singapore. Of a total of 133 cases, the median age at diagnosis was 48.3 years (range, 15.8-89.0 years), comparatively younger than western cohorts. Most were Chinese (71%), followed by Malays (16%), others (9.0%), and Indians (5%). 24% were noted to have a significant family history of malignancy of which breast and gastrointestinal cancers the most prominent. Majority of the patients (80%) had stage I disease at diagnosis. Information on HER2 status was available in 113 cases (85%). Of these, 31 cases (27.4%) were HER2+, higher than 18.8% reported in western population. HER2 positivity appeared to be lower among Chinese and higher among Malays patients (p = 0.052). With the current standard of care, there was no discernible impact of HER2 status on overall survival. (HR = 1.79; 95% CI, 0.66-4.85; p = 0.249). On the other hand, positive family history of cancer, presence of lymphovascular invasion, and ovarian surface involvements were significantly associated with inferior overall survival on univariate and continued to be statistically significant after adjustment for stage. While these clinical factors identify high risk patients, it is promising that the finding of a high incidence of HER2 in our Asian population may allow development of a HER2 targeted therapy to improve the management of mucinous ovarian cancers. © 2013 Chay et al. Source

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