Kiwi are flightless birds endemic to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae. At around the size of a domestic chicken, kiwi are by far the smallest living ratites and lay the largest egg in relation to their body size of any species of bird in the world. There are five recognised species, two of which are currently vulnerable, one of which is endangered, and one of which is critically endangered. Wikipedia.
van Eaton A.R.,Victoria University of Wellington |
Muirhead J.D.,Kiwi |
Wilson C.J.N.,Victoria University of Wellington |
Cimarelli C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Bulletin of Volcanology | Year: 2012
Key processes influencing the aggregation of volcanic ash and hydrometeors are examined with an experimental method employing vibratory pan aggregation. Mechanisms of aggregation in the presence of hail and ice pellets, liquid water (≤30 wt%), and mixed water phases are investigated at temperatures of 18 and -20 °C. The experimentally generated aggregates, examined in hand sample, impregnated thin sections, SEM imagery, and X-ray microtomography, closely match natural examples from phreatomagmatic phases of the 27 ka Oruanui and 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions. Laser diffraction particle size analysis of parent ash and aggregates is also used to calculate the first experimentally derived aggregation coefficients that account for changing liquid water contents and subzero temperatures. These indicate that dry conditions (<5-10 wt% liquid) promote strongly size selective collection of sub-63 μm particles into aggregates (given by aggregation coefficients >1). In contrast, liquid-saturated conditions (>15-20 wt% liquid) promote less size selective processes. Crystalline ice was also capable of preferentially selecting volcanic ash <31 μm under liquid-free conditions in a two-stage process of electrostatic attraction followed by ice sintering. However, this did not accumulate more than a monolayer of ash at the ice surface. These quantitative relationships may be used to predict the timescales and characteristics of aggregation, such as aggregate size spectra, densities, and constituent particle size characteristics, when the initial size distribution and water content of a volcanic cloud are known. The presence of an irregularly shaped, millimeter-scale vacuole at the center of natural aggregates was also replicated during interaction of ash and melting ice pellets, followed by sublimation. Fine-grained rims were formed by adding moist aggregates to a dry mixture of sub-31 μm ash, which adhered by electrostatic forces and sparse liquid bridges. From this, we infer that the fine-grained outer layers of natural aggregates reflect recycled exposure of moist aggregates to regions of volcanic clouds that are relatively dry and dominated by <31 μm ash. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2014
The kiwi is a fruit that, has only been in Europe for about 60 years, which signifies a great potential for the development of its consumption and great difficulty in the educational process of the product. Currently there is a growing increase in world production, which to date is above the growth in demand. This means that the kiwi categories are not growing significantly and, on the contrary, the kiwi is at a crossroad that will be resolved in the coming years. The changing global economic scenario affects high-value products such as kiwis, making it hard to predict their commercial results. The worldwide market has clearly indicated through the demand and the prices that it is interested in the sweeter yellow varieties. Asian markets have been and are expected to continue to grow. The increase in world production has also generated overlap in stocks between the hemispheres, which makes it necessary to closely monitor commercial strategies regarding the start and end of the season. In this way, the market entry of the southern hemisphere kiwifruit is conditioned according to the presence of fruit from the Northern Hemisphere. The unique features and uses of the kiwi make it one of the most interesting fruits present in the world. For this reason it is also a fruit with high purchase value. In spite of the described variables and market trends, there is a growing demand for consuming better quality kiwis and willingness to pay a higher price. © 2014, Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura. All rights reserved. Source
Science for Conservation | Year: 2011
Seabirds are a highly visible component of the natural character of the Kermadec Islands, the Coastal Marine Area (CMA) and across the wider region's waters, and understanding their role within this environment is essential to inform conservation management. This report reviews current knowledge of shearwaters, petrels, boobies, tropicbirds, terns and noddies breeding on the islands, their historic populations and current status, and compares them with respect to nesting, foraging and feeding. Detailed information about the foraging biology of the region's seabird taxa and marine habitat affinities is either fragmentary or non-existent, so this report draws on extralimital subtropical Pacific Ocean studies. Vessel-based seabird observations collected between 1969-1982 and 2004-2008 showing the distribution and occurrence of Kermadec taxa between 5°S and 35°S and 170°E to 170°W are presented. At least forty-two taxa of southern, subtropical and tropical origins are also shown to occur with the region, generally on migration during non-breeding months, although some taxa (e.g. from northern New Zealand offshore islands) occur during breeding periods. The oceanic location of the Kermadec Islands- between tropical and temperate zones, and in an area of relatively high productivity-contributes to their status as a major seabird refuge of international importance. Historical records show that Kermadec waters supported much larger seabird populations. Following successful predator- and pest-control programmes, an increase in seabird numbers is already evident on Raoul Island, the largest island in the group. In this context, the activity and behaviour of all Kermadec seabirds, including breeders, non-breeders and recently fledged birds, must be taken into account when determining the types of human activities permitted within the CMA and the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone area around the islands. Emphasis is given to the threats they face on land and sea, and recommendations are provided. © December 2011, Department of Conservation. Source
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 781.26K | Year: 2015
This project will deliver a novel low cost intelligent building energy control system integrated with a peer-to-peer energy market that will enable small to medium enterprises to control and automate energy production and consumption while participating in a localised energy market. This project will also facilitate new sectors of the economy to participate in demand response and time of use electricity pricing programmes. The project aims to create a pilot programme for 1 year where successful operation will optimise energy system efficiency and ensure that clients are paid for what they generate, only pay for what they use, reduce energy bills and are offered a new way to earn money by taking an active part in managing supply and demand.
Kiwi | Date: 2013-12-20
A scorekeeper may detect swing candidate and obtains a confirmation from a golfer that the swing candidate contributes to a golf score, provided that a sufficient gap in time or distance occurs after the last swing candidate is received. Next, the scorekeeper may receive a first feedback from the golfer indicating at least one stroke, and in response, update a score to reflect at the least one stroke, and storing the first location. The scorekeeper may repeat these steps to obtain at least a second swing candidate that is verified by the golfer as contributing to the score. In response to these verified swing candidates, the scorekeeper updates the score to reflect at the least one stroke, and store the second location.