Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST-2007-4.1-05 | Award Amount: 5.18M | Year: 2008
The European Urban Guided Transport sector (Light rails, Metros, but also Tramways and Regional Commuter trains) is still characterized by a highly diversified landscape of Safety Requirements, Safety Models, Responsibilities, Roles, Safety Approval, Acceptance and Certification Schemes. While a certain convergence in architectures and systems can be observed the safety life cycle still differs from country to country and in some cases even within one country. Furthermore security items occur more and more as vital for the urban transport sector. In some cases these items are linked to the safety of the urban transport systems. In this context safety is seen as everything dealing with the methods and techniques to avoid accidents. Security is concerned with the protection of persons and the system from criminal acts. The state of the art will be analysed, merged into harmonized and agreed joint safety packages and extended by still missing elements to strengthen excellence of European surface transport. The MODSafe consortium aims at providing for the first time a coherent and agreed Hazards Analysis and Risk Analysis. Also, beyond todays scattered landscape the MODSafe partners will for the first time define agreed safety requirements for the safety related functions of an urban guided transport system. In order to achieve such a safety requirements allocation it is necessary to construct a functional and Object Safety Model of an urban guided transport system. This model will be based on currently running and previous European projects. It will thereby utilise and test the existing knowledge and R&D results. Finally, MODSafe will develop an agreed process and layout for generic safety proofs for urban guided transport safety systems in order to improve future cross acceptances.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: MG-3.4-2014 | Award Amount: 5.01M | Year: 2015
Cyclists suffer a disproportionate share of serious injuries and fatalities, and indeed in recent years that disadvantage has been growing. At the same time they often are not treated equally by traffic systems (e.g. traffic signals frequently fail to register their approach or presence). XCYCLE has the aim of developing the means to equalise the treatment of cyclists in traffic and thus both encourage cycling and make cycling safer. XCYCLE will develop: technologies aimed at improving active and passive detection of cyclists; systems informing both drivers and cyclists of a hazard at junctions; effective methods of presenting information in vehicles and on-site; cooperation systems aimed at reducing collisions with cyclists. Two relevant use cases would be bicycle interaction with large vehicles and cars at intersections and the provision of an immediate or extended green traffic light for cyclists approaching traffic signals. An in-vehicle detection system and a system of threat mitigation and risk avoidance by traffic signals will be developed. The components developed and built up will be systematically integrated, implemented and verified. A new large-scale research infrastructure in the city of Braunschweig (DE) and a second test mobile platform will be used as test site. A demo bicycle with a cooperative technology will be developed and tested as well. A user-centred approach will be adopted. Behavioural evaluation will part of the whole process: attentional responses using eye tracking data; evaluation of human-machine interface; acceptance and willingness to pay. In the Cost-Benefit Analysis behavioural changes will be translated into estimated crashes and casualties saved per system. The project will contribute to innovative and efficient advanced safety measures to reduce the number of accidents, often of high severity, involving cyclists in interaction with motorised vehicles.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-24-2016 | Award Amount: 1.18M | Year: 2017
Driving style is seen not only to become a significant cause of greenhouse gas (GHG) and other air pollutant emissions but also a critical parameter regarding road safety, with huge social & financial adverse effects. GamECAR aims to develop a highly innovative and interactive Serious Games platform that will empower and guide users to adopt an eco-friendly driving style. This will be achieved, without distracting users from safe driving, through a multidisciplinary approach aiming at the development of a user friendly, unobtrusive multi-player gaming environment, where the users will not only play collaboratively/competitively using their mobile device but also using the car itself and their own bodies, thus turning eco-driving into an immersive and highly motivating experience. The sensing infrastructure of GamECAR will not only acquire data related to driving from an OBD sensor that will capture a complex set of parameters related to eco-driving, but will also sense environmental and physiological parameters of the driver, so as to better position the state of the system (car) in context (environment, user). The use of virtual user models and cognitive modeling of the users, will further boost personalization and adaptation of the game itself with respect to the needs of the individual driver. The GamECAR system will be quantified and evaluated in test campaigns with drivers in three different sites. Quantification campaigns serve system development and evaluation campaigns demonstrate usefulness and exploitation potential. Finally, the project has a clear exploitation plan through a balanced and highly complementary composition of SMEs that have specific roles in the development of the integrated GamECAR system. The impact of such a holistic and innovative approach is huge and the foundations laid here are expected to result in a widespread adoption of sensor-based gamification platforms in areas going far beyond eco-driving.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: AAT.2012.3.3-4.;AAT.2012.3.4-1. | Award Amount: 6.50M | Year: 2012
Whilst a vision of zero deaths for air travel may seem unattainable it could be the goal of all involved in air traffic systems (ATS.) To get closer to this vision requires innovation and a different approach. In Vision 2020 the EU set a goal of reducing the air travel accident rate by 80%. The implementation of PROSPERO will provide an advanced systemic methodology for managing the improvement process to achieve that goal. It will also deliver a way of measuring progress. PROSPERO is required because the safety of the current ATS is not based on a modern understanding of risk. It is not integrated across stakeholders and does not collect and analyse data from all available sources. There is no integrated risk metric and consequently no planned improvements. Furthermore the anticipation of emergencies is not part of every day operations planning. The PROSPERO methodology will provide a proactive anticipation of complex system risks with the potential to cause abnormal situations and crises. It will ensure more effective management of, and enhanced learning from, such situations where the risks cannot be designed out of the operation. In this way it will achieve a substantial improvement in the elimination of and recovery from human error. PROSPERO will deliver; a common operational concept of performance indicators linked to operational goals, a methodology for operational system analysis, a new taxonomy to encompass all aviation socio-technical system concepts, a generic system-risk-management process involving all stakeholders and a software system to support the socio-technical analysis and redesign of the ATS. The exploitation of the PROSPERO system will be assured through the implementation of an Advisory Board and Community of Practice made up of experienced and influential partners from around the world. These groups will provide a bridge between the project and the wider aviation community to ensure the project delivers a system to match their requirement
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: AAT.2013.3-1. | Award Amount: 4.77M | Year: 2013
The A-PiMod proposal addresses improved flight safety by proposing a new approach to human centred cockpit design, which expands the understanding of the human factor in joint human-machine system, taking into account increasing levels of operational complexity and new operational concepts (SESAR). The project will advance concepts for a fully adaptive and human centered automation, through the integration of Pilot behavioural and cognitive models with automation models resulting in the generation of real time inferences about the Pilot state and mental picture. With this capability it will be able to support, in an adaptive and cooperative way, the total set of functions (both human and automation) necessary to the achievement of a safe flight under a performance driven ATM system (SESAR). In order to do so, the A-PiMod concept depends on an innovative multimodal human-machine interface, which provides a higher level of human-machine interactivity. This advanced interface will be coupled to a dynamic risk assessment evaluation tool, which enables the detection of potential safety gaps due to loss of Situational Awareness for example. This will further enhance the safety improvements of the proposed A-PiMOD human centred automation design, and associated cockpit interface. In addition, the project will advance new training concepts and allied interactive training tools, exploiting real time pilot or crew state inference. This will ensure that pilots become better and faster aware of the new design philosophy and of how to interact with the new systems. In addition to the extensive cockpit based validation exercises, more system based evaluations will be undertaken, to understand the broader safety and operational impact of the A-PiMOD system. Together with the A-PiMod Advisory Board and the industry participation, this will ensure that project results are taken up by the market in the earliest possible phase of new cockpit design.
Cacciabue P.C.,KITE Solutions SRL |
Enjalbert S.,University of Lille Nord de France |
Soderberg H.,Chalmers University of Technology |
Tapani A.,Linköping University
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour | Year: 2013
This paper describes the implementation of a model of a driver into a computerised numerical simulation. The model is developed to capture the essential characteristics and common aspects of cognition and behaviour of a human being in control of a "vehicle" in different surface transport systems, namely trains, cars and ships. The main functions of the simulation are discussed as well as the experiments carried out in different types of driving simulators to support the estimation of the parameters utilised in the numerical simulation. The validation processes carried out in the rail and maritime domains are also discussed together with a critical review of capacities and limitations of the proposed approach. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schindler J.,German Aerospace Center |
Cassani M.,Kite Solutions SRL
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour | Year: 2013
When designing new Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), the existing guidelines like the RESPONSE 3 Code of Practice imply intense testing of the system prior series production. Within the EU-FP7-Project ISi-PADAS a new methodology of risk based design has been established which includes an integrated simulation platform. This integration enables intense testing of new prototypes in an accelerated way and therefore enhances the design process while directly combining the simulation results with a risk matrix. This paper describes the new methodology while focussing on the software framework and the procedure of risk assessment in detail. It shows the general approach as well as the appropriate steps taken for an ADAS prototype developed in the context of ISi-PADAS. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SST.2008.4.1.4. | Award Amount: 4.14M | Year: 2013
In the past, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) success has been achieved primarily though equipment of the vehicle and infrastructure. The focus of these ITS has been on clean, safe and efficient mobility for vehicles. The Vulnerable Road User (VRU) has reaped fewer benefits of the ITS developments. While some projects have considered VRUs from a safety viewpoint, they often aimed to avoid or mitigate accidents with VRUs by equipping the vehicle and infrastructure. In the vehicle infrastructure human approach of ITS research, VRUs and their needs are not an active part of the human element in the ITS approach. What is needed? The VRU must become an active, integrated element in the ITS, addressing safety, mobility and travel comfort needs of VRUs. The VRUITS project will develop an architecture for integrating the VRUs into the cooperative ITS. VRUITS will recommend ITS that meet the needs of VRUs. Ex-ante and ex-post assessments will form input to these recommendations. Assessment methodologies will be modified to account for specific user behaviour of VRUs. Specifications for ITS applications will be developed, culled from focus group assessments per VRU group. VRUITS will recommend best practices to address HMI development for VRUs. Field trials in the Netherlands and Spain for a select number of applications will take place. VRUITS will recommend which actions for the EC and for other stakeholders are necessary to deploy the systems which have positive effects, and mitigate possible negative effects. VRUITS will fulfill the following objectives: 1. Assess societal impacts of selected ITS, and provide recommendations for policy and industry regarding ITS in order to improve the safety and mobility of VRUs; 2. Provide evidence-based recommended practices on how VRU can be integrated in Intelligent Transport Systems and on how HMI designs can be adapted to meet the needs of VRUs, and test these recommendations in field trials.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST-2007-4.1-02 | Award Amount: 2.56M | Year: 2009
In recent years, a variety of driver support and information management systems have been designed and implemented with the objective of improving safety as well as the performance of vehicles. While the crucial issues at a technical level have been mostly solved, their consequences on driver activity remains open and needs to be fully explained. Of particular importance are their effects on driver behaviour and strategies, and their impact on the operation and safety of the traffic system. The aim of the proposed project is to develop and validate a unified model of driver behaviour and driver interaction with innovative technologies in emergency situations. This model will be applicable to and validated for all the surface transport modes. Drivers age, gender, education and experience and culture are factors that will be considered together with influences from the environment and the vehicle. A unified model of driver behaviour will be of great use when designing innovative technologies since it will allow for assessment and tuning of the systems in a safe and controllable environment. At the concept stage, the model could guide designers in identifying potential problem areas whilst at the prototype stage, the model could inform on the scenarios to be used in system evaluation. In this way the systems will be better adapted to the drivers before being available on the market and will provide better support to the driver in emergency situations. Along the same lines, the model could be of use for authorities as a guide in assessing and approving innovative technologies without performing extensive simulator experiments or large scale field trials. As far as the proposes are aware, there has not to date been any research taking the bold step of attempting to create a unified model of driver behaviour applicable across the modes, still less a functioning piece of software to represent that model and the validation of that software.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SME-1 | Phase: IT-1-2014-1 | Award Amount: 71.43K | Year: 2014
In aviation, experience has shown that accidents are often preceded by safety-related incidents and occurrences revealing hazards at technological level, human factors and organisational deficiencies, but solely reactive interventions have limited efficacy. Existing legislative acts of the Union impose obligations on organizations involved in aviation activities to establish occurrence-reporting systems in the context of their Safety Management System supporting the performance of safety and risk assessment evaluations, utilising appropriate methods and techniques, coupled with specific information about an organization. The implementation of occurrence reporting should be proportionate to the size of an organization and the scope of its activity. However, the community of SMEs active in Europe in Aviation face serious issues both of data availability and specific methodologies, due to the fact that they experience only very few occurrences and events per year and are not very familiar with practical implementation of risk assessment approaches. Consequently, they need data, information about incidents and abnormal occurrences, as well as useful correlations for hazards analysis. This project aims at offering the possibility for SMEs to Share Knowledge for Effective Management of Aviation Safety (SKEMAS). The SKEMAS tool will enable SMEs both to fully comply with existing regulation and to enrich their usually scarce data sets in view for more complete and more realistic safety analysis. The generation of a shared database of methods for risk analysis and real data on occurrences and events will represent a substantial source of information and data shared amongst the various contributors, enabling to carry out valuable statistical analysis and risk assessment. Moreover, in strict compliance with the most recent EU regulations, such a database should ensure full protection from improper use of the data, deidentification of the sources and maximum confidentiality.