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Terada M.,Dokkyo Medical University | Horii Y.,Kitayama Labes Co. | Sato F.,Hidaka Training and Research Center | Taniguchi K.,Kitasato University | And 6 more authors.
Reproductive Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

Purpose: Ejaculation in the male dog consists of three fractions. Observation of behavior and measurement of heart rate (HR), and plasma noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (Ad) concentrations were researched sequentially, and a fundamental examination of the features of sympathetic nerve activity during copulatory behavior induced by the hand method in the male dog was undertaken. Methods: We investigated the breeding capability of male dogs. HR, plasma NA level and plasma Ad levels were measured during ejaculation induced by the hand method. Results: HR was 125.8 ± 6.0 beats/min at rest, and peaked during mounting at 195.2 ± 8.2 beats/min. Moreover, HR at 3 min after the first fraction decreased to values similar to those at rest. Plasma NA and Ad concentrations during copulatory behavior induced by the hand method did not differ significantly from those at rest. However, although there was no significant difference, plasma NA concentration during ejaculation of the third fraction peaked at about 1.8 times the baseline value. Conclusions: In the male dog, excitation of sympathetic nerves of long duration during erection of the penis and ejaculation is questionable. However, inhibition of sympathetic nerves and activation of parasympathetic nerves is thought to occur during erection of the penis and ejaculation. © 2013 The Author(s).

Sugimoto H.,Taniguchi Hospital | Sugimoto H.,Kinki University | Kida Y.,Kinki University | Oh N.,Kinki University | And 5 more authors.
Zygote | Year: 2015

We examined growing oocytes collected from follicles remaining in superovulated rabbit ovaries, that were grown (in vitro growth, IVG) and matured (in vitro maturation, IVM) in vitro. We produced somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos using the mature oocytes and examined whether these embryos have the ability to develop to the blastocyst stage. In addition, we examined the effects of trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), on the developmental competence of SCNT embryos derived from IVG-IVM oocytes. After growth for 7 days and maturation for 14-16 h in vitro, the growing oocytes reached the metaphase II stage (51.4%). After SCNT, these reconstructed embryos reached the blastocyst stage (20%). Furthermore, the rate of development to the blastocyst stage and the number of cells in the blastocysts in SCNT embryos derived from IVG-IVM oocytes were significantly higher for TSA-treated embryos compared with TSA-untreated embryos (40.6 versus 21.4% and 353.1 ± 59.1 versus 202.5 ± 54.6, P < 0.05). These results indicate that rabbit SCNT embryos using IVG-IVM oocytes have the developmental competence to reach the blastocyst stage. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.

Sugimoto H.,Taniguchi Hospital | Kida Y.,Kinki University | Miyamoto Y.,Kinki University | Kitada K.,Kitayama Labes Co. | And 4 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

The objective was to develop a culture system that produced blastocyst stage embryos from rabbit oocytes grown in vitro. Two experiments were performed. First, various concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS, 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 5%) were used in the culture medium for in vitro growth (IVG) of oocytes recovered from follicles 200 to 299 μm in diameter. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed on mature oocytes obtained after IVG for 8 days and in vitro maturation for 14 to 16 h. Rates of survival and pronuclear formation after ICSI were higher for oocytes grown in a medium with 0.05% FBS compared to oocytes grown in a medium lacking FBS (97.6 vs. 76.9%, 97.5 vs. 70%, P < 0.1). The rate of development to the blastocyst stage was also higher in the medium containing 0.05% FBS than in the medium lacking FBS (9.5 vs. 17.9%, P < 0.05). Next, using oocytes recovered from follicles 200 to 399 μm in diameter which were cultured in 0.05% FBS, oxygen consumption and the number of cells were analyzed. Blastocysts from oocytes grown in vitro with 0.05% FBS had reduced oxygen consumption and number of cells compared with those from ovulated oocytes (21.66 ± 4.54 × 1014 vs. 50.19 ± 4.61 × 1014 mol/sec, 244 ± 25 vs. 398 ± 24, P < 0.05). Rabbit oocytes grown in vitro with 0.05% FBS achieved pregnancy, but pregnancies were not maintained to term. In conclusion, the addition of 0.05% FBS to the culture medium for IVG improved developmental competence of rabbit oocytes grown in vitro. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Kondo M.,Mie University | Das G.,University of Pennsylvania | Imai R.,Takeda Pharmaceutical | Santana E.,University of Pennsylvania | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a non-progressive, clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease of impaired night vision. We report a naturally-occurring, stationary, autosomal recessive phenotype in beagle dogs with normal daylight vision but absent night vision. Affected dogs had normal retinas on clinical examination, but showed no detectable rod responses. They had "negative-type" mixed rod and cone responses in full-field ERGs. Their photopic long-flash ERGs had normal OFF-responses associated with severely reduced ON-responses. The phenotype is similar to the Schubert-Bornschein form of complete CSNB in humans. Homozygosity mapping ruled out most known CSNB candidates as well as CACNA2D4 and GNB3. Three remaining genes were excluded based on sequencing the open reading frame and intron-exon boundaries (RHO, NYX), causal to a different form of CSNB (RHO) or X-chromosome (NYX, CACNA1F) location. Among the genes expressed in the photoreceptors and their synaptic terminals, and mGluR6 cascade and modulators, reduced expression of GNAT1, CACNA2D4 and NYX was observed by qRT-PCR in both carrier (n = 2) and affected (n = 2) retinas whereas CACNA1F was down-regulated only in the affecteds. Retinal morphology revealed normal cellular layers and structure, and electron microscopy showed normal rod spherules and synaptic ribbons. No difference from normal was observed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for antibodies labeling rods, cones and their presynaptic terminals. None of the retinas showed any sign of stress. Selected proteins of mGluR6 cascade and its modulators were examined by IHC and showed that PKCα weakly labeled the rod bipolar somata in the affected, but intensely labeled axonal terminals that appeared thickened and irregular. Dendritic terminals of ON-bipolar cells showed increased Goα labeling. Both PKCα and Goα labeled the more prominent bipolar dendrites that extended into the OPL in affected but not normal retinas. Interestingly, RGS11 showed no labeling in the affected retina. Our results indicate involvement of a yet unknown gene in this canine model of complete CSNB. © 2015 Kondo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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