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Chen Z.,Chengdu Medical College | Lu X.,Kumamoto University | Kitamura T.,Kitamura Institute of Mental Health Tokyo
Depression Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

Objective. To examine the relations between personality traits and syndromes of depression in a nonclinical Chinese population. Method. We recruited 469 nonclinical participants in China. They completed the Chinese version temperament and character inventory (TCI) and self-rating depression scale (SDS). A structural equation model was used to rate the relation between seven TCI scales and the three SDS subscale scores (based on Shafer's meta-analysis of the SDS items factor analyses). This was based on the assumption that the three depression subscales would be predicted by the temperament and character subscales, whereas the character subscales would be predicted by the temperament subscales. Results. The positive symptoms scores were predicted by low self-directedness (SD), cooperativeness (C), reward dependence (RD), and persistence (P) as well as older age. The negative symptoms scores were predicted only by an older age. The somatic symptoms scores were predicted by high SD. Conclusion. Syndromes of depression are differentially associated with temperament and character patterns. It was mainly the positive symptoms scores that were predicted by the TCI scores. The effects of harm avoidance (HA) on the positive symptoms scores could be mediated by low SD and C. © 2011 Zi Chen et al. Source


Takagishi Y.,Kumamoto University | Sakata M.,Yoshida Hospital | Kitamura T.,Kitamura Institute of Mental Health Tokyo
Industrial Health | Year: 2012

In Japan, mergers of cities, towns, and villages have occurred rapidly as a result of the Special Law on the Merger of Municipalities, enacted in 2005. These mergers may impact civil servants' psychological adjustment. We developed the Municipal Merger Stress Questionnaire (MMSQ) to measure the impact of the municipal mergers and collected responses from 570 employees who had experienced a municipal merger (Study 1). We examined the relationships among the impact of municipal merger, Stress Responses, Self-concept (self-esteem and interpersonal dependency), and Social Support (Study 2). Two factors (Increased Workload and Worthlessness) were derived from the MMSQ in Study 1. Additionally, a structural equation model showed that the impact of the loss of value of their job (Worthlessness) related to the psychological stress responses, while job discretion did not differentiate an entire stress situation in Study 2. The result implies that psychological aspects of interventions focused on worthlessness are required to maintain good mental health of public servants at workplaces. © 2012 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Source


Lu X.,Kumamoto University | Chen Z.,Chengdu Medical College | Cui X.,Kumamoto University | Uji M.,Kumamoto University | And 6 more authors.
Depression Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

Objective. To examine the effects of temperament and character profiles on state and trait depression and anxiety in a Japanese youth population. Method. Japanese university students were solicited for participation in a two-wave study, with assessments performed at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2), separated by a five-month interval. A total of 184 students completed the Japanese version of the temperament and character inventory (TCI) at T1 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at T1 and T2. We posited two latent variables, trait depression and anxiety, composed of the T1 and T2 HADS depression and anxiety scores, respectively. We also posited that temperament domain traits would predict character domain traits, and that all the personality traits would be linked to trait depression and anxiety and also predict T2 depression and anxiety. Results. Structural regression modeling showed that (1) only high Novelty Seeking predicted T2 Anxiety score, (2) trait depression and anxiety were linked to high harm avoidance and low self-directedness, and (3) trait depression was linked to high self-transcendence whereas trait anxiety was linked to low reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness. Conclusion. The characteristic associations between TCI subscales and depression and anxiety were limited to the trait rather than state aspects of depression and anxiety. © 2012 Xi Lu et al. Source


Lu X.,Kumamoto University | Katoh T.,Kumamoto University | Chen Z.,Chengdu Medical College | Nagata T.,Kyushu University of Nursing and Social Welfare | And 2 more authors.
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2014

Text messaging may be excessive and young people may be dependent on it. We distributed the Self-perception of Text-message Dependency Scale (STDS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) to 223 Japanese university students in a two-wave study, separated by a 5-month interval. The STDS yielded a three-factor structure. The STDS scores across the two measurement occasions were stable across time (except for the Relationship Maintenance subscale). A hierarchical cluster analysis suggested a three-class structure interpreted as Normal Users, Excessive Users, and Dependent Users. Excessive Users and Dependent Users were characterized by a young age at initial mobile phone use, more frequent use of text messaging, higher Novelty Seeking, and better Other-Model patterns of adult attachment. Unlike Excessive Users, Dependent Users were characterized by lower Self-directedness, poorer Self-Model of adult attachment, and higher anxiety and depression. The Excessive Users, but not the Dependent Users, were characterized by high Reward Dependence and Co-operativeness. The present study demonstrated that the STDS has a robust factor structure, good construct validity, and temporal stability (except for Relationship Maintenance subscale); students could be classified into normal, excessive, and Dependent Users of the text messaging; and Dependent Users were characterized by Excessive Use and personality immaturity. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Chen Z.,Chengdu Medical College | Lu X.,Kumamoto University | Kitamura T.,Kitamura Institute of Mental Health Tokyo
Comprehensive Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Objective: To examine the factor structure of the 144-item Chinese version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and its association with age and gender in a large non-clinical population. Method: We recruited 1966 non-clinical participants in China who completed the TCI Chinese version. They were randomly divided into two independent samples. One sample (n = 983) was used for exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and the other (n = 983) for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results: An EFA suggested a four-factor structure for temperament domains and a three-factor structure for character domains. This was confirmed by a CFA. Women showed significantly higher scores on harm avoidance, reward dependence, co-operativeness, and self-transcendence than men. Age affected every subscale expect for reward dependence. Conclusion: The factor structure of the Chinese TCI was similar to the original factor structure, with some differences reflecting the culture of a Chinese population. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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