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Osman M.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Osman M.,University of Florence | He X.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Singh R.P.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | And 8 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2015

As an important cereal disease in humid and semi-humid areas, Fusarium head blight (FHB) has caused severe epidemics on wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) in different countries worldwide. By causing both yield loss and quality degradation, FHB presents a two-fold threat to farmers and consumers. Since the beginning of FHB research at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) in the early 1980s, a large-scale FHB screening has been conducted to identify and incorporate new resistance genes into elite CIMMYT germplasm. Candidates of the 15th Fusarium head blight screening nursery (FHBSN) were derived from different CIMMYT wheat breeding programs and were tested for 3 years successively in El Batán, Mexico, before being included in the 15th FHBSN set. From 2010 to 2012, a set of 44 out of 2794 lines were gradually selected depending on their FHB indices, pedigree information, and phenological traits like plant height and days to heading. The performance of these lines varied across years under different disease pressure, but they all showed high level of resistance compared to the susceptible checks. In 2013, the nursery was again evaluated in El Batán, as well as in artificially inoculated field trials in Norway, Uruguay, the Netherlands, and Japan (2014), and in naturally infected experiments in Toluca, Mexico, and Canada. Although not all lines demonstrated strong resistance across environments, promising lines with good FHB resistance can still be identified in each location. The genotypes were haplotyped with PCR-based markers for ten loci on seven chromosomes associated with known FHB resistance, and the results suggested that 24 of the genotypes (55 %) carried the 4BS QTL as in Wuhan 1, which was the most frequent QTL in this nursery, and the 7A QTL as in T. dicoccoides was noticed in five (11 %) of the genotypes. The resistance QTLs on chromosomes 3B, 5A and 6B as in Sumai 3 and 3A as in T. dicoccoides were not detected in any of the genotypes denoting the uniqueness of these lines. Fifteen (34 %) of the genotypes may not carry any of the ten QTLs examined. The results provide valuable information that could be successfully utilized by breeders to select resistant parents for crosses since novel resistance sources were detected for better targeted crosses toward diversifying and/or pyramiding FHB resistance. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Ikeda S.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Suzuki K.,Kitami Agricultural Experiment Station | Kawahara M.,SUN AGRO Co. | Noshiro M.,HOKKAIDO SUN AGRO Co. | Takahashi N.,SUN AGRO Co.
Microbes and Environments | Year: 2014

The impact of a urea-formaldehyde (UF) fertilizer on bacterial diversity in onion bulbs and main roots of sugar beet were examined using a 16S rRNA gene clone library. The UF fertilizer markedly increased bacterial diversity in both plants. The results of principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed that nearly 30% of the variance observed in bacterial diversity in both the onion and sugar beet was attributed to the fertilization conditions and also that the community structures in both plants shifted unidirectionally in response to the UF fertilizer.


Hayashi K.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Koga N.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Fueki N.,Kitami Agricultural Experiment Station
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2011

The present study first aimed to investigate the ammonia (NH3) volatilization loss from broadcast ammonium sulfate at an upland field of volcanic ash soil (Andosol) in Hokkaido, northern Japan. Ammonium sulfate was applied for the regrowing stage of wheat at a rate of 300kgha-1 (= 63.6kgNha-1). A micrometeorological technique (i.e., the gradient method) was used to determine the atmosphere-upland field exchange of NH3. A dynamic chamber method was also tested to separate the contributions of the soil surface and wheat to the exchange fluxes. Although the NH3 volatilization began one day after the fertilizer application, the cumulative loss accounted for only 0.2% of the applied nitrogen. Hence, the present study also examined the features of Andosols in terms of the inhibition of NH3 volatilization. Existing studies support the suggestion that upland fields of Andosols inhibit the NH3 volatilization loss compared to non-Andosols. The following were the key features of Andosols that might inhibit NH3 volatilization: the relatively low soil pH; the relatively high effective cation exchange capacity even at a low soil pH; and the relatively high nitrification potential, signifying a high consumption rate of the applied ammonium. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Fukukawa E.,Ornamental Plants and Vegetables Research Center | Tanaka S.,Ornamental Plants and Vegetables Research Center | Kimura Y.,Central Agricultural Experiment Station | Yanagida D.,Kitami Agricultural Experiment Station
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The use of non-permitted materials in organic onion production is restricted by The Organic Japanese Agricultural Standard System (the Organic JAS). Onion production in Hokkaido depends on seedling plugs manufactured by farmers and a high-speed automatic transplanting system. Plug soil must be solidified in order to withstand the mechanical stress induced during transplantation; therefore, plug soil should be firmly bound with synthetic resin or another binding agent. Because the use of existing synthetic resins is prohibited in 2012, we needed to investigate the efficiency of different organic binding materials using the process recommended by the Organic JAS and their usefulness in organic onion production. Therefore, we designed some laboratory tests to identify potential organic binders and conducted actual binding tests in the onion nurseries and mechanical transplantation tests in onion fields in cooperation with organic farmers. Plugs were bound by spraying 0.5% sodium alginate solution (one liter per cell tray), after this, they were dried without water for about 8 days. For at least 6 days after spraying, the plugs were not watered to ensure that they became firm by drying. Mechanical transplanting could then be accomplished successfully.


Maekawa K.,Agricultural Research Institute | Tanaka S.,Kitami Agricultural Experiment Station | Tanaka S.,Hokkaido Research Organization Ornamental Plants and Vegetables Research Center | Yanagida D.,Kitami Agricultural Experiment Station | And 10 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

A hybrid spring-sowing onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivar 'Sojiro' was developed by the joint breeding program among Hokkaido Research Organization (Kitami Agricultural Experiment Station), Sakata Seed Corporation, and HOKUREN Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives. This cultivar is extremely early maturity type and was released in Hokkaido which is northern-most region in Japan. 'Sojiro' has attractive dark brown-colored skin which envelops the bulb tightly. The bulb shape is round or slightly round-flat. Therefore, the appearance is desirable for fresh onion market in Japan. Furthermore, this cultivar indicates strong resistance to Fusarium basal rot (FBR). This cultivar should be very beneficial for farmers and market in Japan because almost none of extremely early maturity cultivars in Hokkaido have high resistance to FBR, which can be caused at all stages including field, transportation and market.


Fueki N.,Kitami Agricultural Experiment Station | Lipiec J.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Kus J.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation | Kotowska U.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Nosalewicz A.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2012

To clarify the differences in physical aspects (water permeability and macropore) between organically (OR) and conventionally managed (CO) soils, infiltration was measured at an experimental field managed in Puławy, Poland. Soil columns at depths of 0-20 cm (diameter 21.5 cm) were also collected from the field to determine infiltration and flow-active porosity (macropore).The infiltration rate was 6-10 times higher in OR than in CO, owing to larger macropores in OR. The larger macropores in OR could presumably be due to two factors: (1) the fact that compost and clover (Trifolium repens)-grass were applied only to the organically managed field; (2) the larger population of earthworms (Eisenia foetida) in the organically managed field, which prefer applied organic matter and dislike agrochemicals. These findings, of the higher infiltration and the larger macropore in OR than in CO, may demonstrate one positive effect of organic soil management. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Yoshimura Y.,Kitami Agricultural Experiment Station
Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi | Year: 2013

Most of the spring wheat in Hokkaido was replaced by winter wheat after the release of the winter hardy variety ZHokuei' in 1954 ; the target of wheat breeding subsequently shifted to increased yield. After the release of the winter wheat variety ZHoroshirikomugi', with good storage tolerance and disease resistance, in 1974, wheat production in Hokkaido increased remarkably. At the time, Hokkaido's wheat was mostly consumed for breadmaking, and millers demanded hard wheat with higher protein content. However, the higher yield of new varieties resulted in lower protein content, generating a negative reputation because of poor bread-making qualities. Therefore, we focused on Japanese ZUdon' noodles, which require intermediate protein content, in consultation with millers. Our aim was to develop a winter wheat with good Udon noodle-making qualities, similar to those of Australian Standard White (ASW). ZChihoku-komugi', which was released in 1981, showed slightly lower amylose content and good Udon-making qualities, because the amylose content of flour is greatly associated with the texture of Udon noodles. This variety was regarded as one of the best domestic wheat varieties for Udon noodle-making ; however, its lower disease resistance, poor milling qualities, and undesirable flour color did not satisfy farmers and millers. This led us to screen breeding lines of early generations by evaluating milling qualities and flour color. As a result, a new variety, ZKitahonami', with good noodle-making and milling qualities, similar to those of ASW, was developed in 2006. ZKitahonami' shows excellent milling qualities and flour color, high yield, good resistance to diseases, and pre-harvest sprouting, which is satisfactory to farmers and millers. ZKitahonami' is currently cultivated throughout Hokkaido.

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