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Pohang, South Korea

Heo J.-D.,KIT Jeongeup Campus | Oh. J.-H.,Korea Institute of Toxicology | Lee K.,KIT Jeongeup Campus | Kim C.Y.,Korea Institute of Toxicology | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Toxicology | Year: 2010

Many in the welding industry suffer from bronchitis, lung function changes, metal fume fever, and diseases related to respiratory damage. These phenomena are associated with welding fumes; however, the mechanism behind these findings remains to be elucidated. In this study, the lungs of cynomolgus monkeys were exposed to MMA-SS welding fumes for 229 days and allowed to recover for 153 days. After the exposure and recovery period, gene expression profiles were investigated using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Human U133 plus 2.0. In total, it was confirmed that 1,116 genes were up-or downregulated (over 2-fold changes, P<0.01) for the T1(31.4 ± 2.8 mg/m3) and T2 (62.5 ± 2.7 mg/m3) dose groups. Differentially expressed genes in the exposure and recovery groups were analyzed, based on hierarchical clustering, and were imported into Ingenuity Pathways Analysis to analyze the biological and toxicological functions. Functional analysis identified genes involved in immunological disease in both groups. Additionally, differentially expressed genes in common between monkeys and rats following welding fume exposure were compared using microarray data, and the gene expression of selected genes was verified by real-time PCR. Genes such as CHI3L1, RARRES1, and CTSB were up-regulated and genes such as CYP26B1, ID4, and NRGN were down-regulated in both monkeys and rats following welding fume exposure. This is the first comprehensive gene expression profiling conducted for welding fume exposure in monkeys, and these expressed genes are expected to be useful in helping to understand transcriptional changes in monkey lungs after welding fume exposure. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Oh J.-H.,Korea Institute of Toxicology | Yang M.-J.,KIT Jeongeup Campus | Heo J.-D.,KIT Jeongeup Campus | Yang Y.-S.,KIT Jeongeup Campus | And 8 more authors.
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2012

As chronic exposure to welding fumes causes pulmonary diseases, such as pneumoconiosis, public concern has increased regarding continued exposure to these hazardous gases in the workplace. In a previous study, the inflammatory response to welding fume exposure was analysed in rat lungs in the case of recurrent exposure and recovery periods. Thus using lung samples, well-annotated by histological observation and biochemical analysis, this study examines the gene expression profiles to identify phenotype-anchored genes corresponding to lung inflammation and the repair phenomenon after recurrent welding fume exposure. Seven genes (Mmp12, Cd5l, LOC50101, LOC69183, Spp1, and Slc26a4) were found to be significantly up-regulated according to the severity of the lung injury. In addition, the transcription and translation of Trem2, which was up-regulated in response to the repair process, were validated using a real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The differentially expressed genes in the exposure and recovery groups were also classified using k-means and hierarchical clustering, plus their toxicological function and canonical pathways were further analysed using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis Software. As a result, this comprehensive and integrative analysis of the transcriptional changes that occur during repeated exposure provides important information on the inflammation and repair processes after welding-fume-induced lung injury. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

Park H.-J.,Korea Institute of Toxicology | Yang M.-J.,KIT Jeongeup Campus | Oh J.-H.,Korea Institute of Toxicology | Yang Y.-S.,KIT Jeongeup Campus | And 3 more authors.
Toxicological Research | Year: 2013

Pulmonary fibrosis is a common consequence of many lung diseases and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of pulmonary fibrosis remain poorly understood. One model used successfully to study pulmonary fibrosis over the past few decades is the bleomycin- induced pulmonary fibrosis model. We aimed to identify the genes associated with fibrogenesis using an Affymetrix GeneChip system in a bleomycin-induced rat model for pulmonary fibrosis. To confirm fibrosis development, several analyses were performed, including cellular evaluations using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity, and histopathological examinations. Common aspects of pulmonary fibrosis such as prolonged inflammation, immune cell infiltration, emergence of fibroblasts, and deposition of extracellular matrix and connective tissue elements were observed. Global gene expression analysis revealed significantly altered expression of genes (≥ 1.5-fold, p < 0.05.) in a time-dependent manner during the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Our results are consistent with previous results of well-documented gene expression. Interestingly, the expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (Trem2), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1), and several proteases such as Tpsab1, Mcpt1, and Cma1 was considerably induced in the lung after bleomycin treatment, despite little evidence that they are involved in pulmonary fibrogenesis. These data will aid in our understanding of fibrogenic mechanisms and contribute to the identification of candidate biomarkers of fibrotic disease development.

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