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Kiryū, Japan

Amano K.,Gunma University | Kojima Y.,Kiryu High School | Kurabayashi T.,Kiryu High School | Kurihara K.,Gunma University | And 4 more authors.

In this paper, we consider the following sliding puzzle called torus puzzle. In an m by n board, there are mn pieces numbered from 1 to mn. Initially, the pieces are placed in ascending order. Then they are scrambled by rotating the rows and columns without the player's knowledge. The objective of the torus puzzle is to rearrange the pieces in ascending order by rotating the rows and columns. We provide a solution to this puzzle. In addition, we provide lower and upper bounds on the number of steps for solving the puzzle. Moreover, we consider a variant of the torus puzzle in which each piece is colored either black or white, and we present a hardness result for solving it. © 2012 by the authors. Source

Sato K.,Gunma University | Suemune S.,Gunma University | Nitta K.,Gunma University | Nakayama C.,Gunma University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis

We report a simple fabrication route of activated carbons (ACs) from a waste biomass, chicken droppings without any additional activation process. The ACs with specific surface area up to 1618 m2 g-1 with well developed micropore channels are successfully fabricated by pyrolysis followed by HCl treatment. The detailed analysis of pyrolysis behavior using thermogravimetry and gas chromatography reveals that activation of the precursor takes place through the catalytic gasification by CO2 evolved from CaCO3 during the pyrolysis. Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) fabricated from the ACs show good specific capacitance up to 25 F g-1 due to well developed sub-nanometer sized pore channels. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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