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Pise A.,Direct. of Technical Education | Gokhale N.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

Recently, prediction of cylinder head temperature, using simulation techniques is one of interested tool for engineers. The main aim of this paper work is to predict the temperature field and mechanism of heat transfer prediction along cylinder head of diesel engines. Numerical analysis of conjugate heat transfer (CHT) between cylinder head and coolant was carried out. For the analysis of a six cylinder, four cylinder, three cylinder, and two cylinder stationary diesel engines for different BMEP were taken. Simulation model was prepared and solved using commercial CFD software (STARCCM+ 9.O2) in two steps i.e. flow and Conjugate Heat transfer simulation. Flow simulation predicts flow distribution and its flow velocities along with its variation with respect to cylinder location and channel dimensions. Cylinder head is then used for further analysis where flow and heat transfer is solved simultaneously using CHT (conjugate heat transfer) simulation technique. It predicts temperature distribution of the cylinder head bottom deck, exhaust port, valve bridge region and other critical locations. The input data for heat transfer coefficient values are obtained from analytical methods. This study was performed at various loads to examine the trends in temperatures and provide an input to the estimation of the cylinder head life based on field operating conditions. From these trends lines, correlations of temperature with BMEP are developed. Also efforts extended, to measure the temperature experimentally at rated load at various critical locations by providing templug. These values of temperatures are used to validate the numerical predicated temperatures at rated load. It found good agreements with experimental results. From the predicated temperature field nucleate boiling mechanism is proposed. Temperature prediction helps to locate point wise detection of hot spots along cylinder head; causes thermal stresses, responsible for engine failure. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.

News Article | November 4, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Diesel gensets supply electrical power to households and industries during power-cuts and power deficiency to prevent discontinuity in daily activities and business operations. Diesel gensets works on the principle of conversion of kinetic energy into electrical energy. Diesel gensets are made up of an internal combustion engine (IC engine) which is fuelled by diesel and alternators (electrical generation unit). Based on power production capacity or power rating, diesel gensets are broadly classified under four categories, namely low power rating (below 60 kilowatts), medium power rating (60 kilowatts - 300 kilowatts), high power rating (300 kilowatts - 1 megawatt), and very high power rating  (1 megawatt and above). Asia Pacific was the largest market for diesel gensets in 2013, followed by Europe and North America. North American and European markets are heading towards maturity while the emerging markets in Asia Pacific, Middle East and Latin America have high growth rate. Growth rate in rest of the world (Middle East, South America and Africa) is the highest to increasing power demand owing to infrastructural developments in the countries such as Brazil and South Africa. Based on product segment, low power rating diesel gensets hold majority of the market share mainly due to their wide acceptance in domestic, manufacturing, data centre, mining and petrochemical industries. Very high power rating gensets are expected to witness highest growth across the power rating categories in the coming years which are attributed to their increasing demands from manufacturing industries. However, the increasing government regulations against pollution caused by diesel gensets and evolution of emission standards are posing threat for the industry. The trend of eco-friendly power generators such as solar panels and batteries and rising petroleum prices are also restraining the growth of diesel gensets market. Gas gensets are one of the emerging power source and a substitute for diesel genets. However, they require related infrastructure for the gas pipelines which are absent in most of the regions in the developing countries. The power requirement in developing countries is increasing due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. However, the deficit remains due to the demand and supply gap. Moreover, the ageing power infrastructure and non-reliable grid power supply in the developing countries have been creating further power deficit, which is expected to boost the demand for diesel gensets. The increasing demand for mobile diesel gensets and bio-fuel based diesel gensets is providing new opportunities for global diesel gensets market. The major companies operating in the diesel gensets market includes APR Energy Plc.,  Broadcrown Ltd., Caterpillar Inc., Cummins Inc., Dresser-Rand Group Inc., F.G. Wilson Inc., Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd., MQ Power Corp., MTU Onsite Energy Corp., Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Wacker Neuson SE and Wuxi Kipor Power Co. Ltd.

Generators are devices, which converts the energy from external source to electricity, generators available in different sizes and ratings ranging from portable to very large generators. Very large generators are mainly used in commercial buildings, large-scale industries where the need of electricity is continuous to maintain the continuous operations without any interruption in case of failure. Very large generators rating ranges from 100 kVA to 5000 kVA, which is capable of running heavy machineries in industries and lighting commercial buildings. The market for very large generators market is expected to have significant growth as compared to that of other generators due its prevalent use in the industries. Globally, the market for very large generators is anticipated to register single digit CAGR over the forecast period. The global very large generator market is primarily driven by its prime use in various industries such as, mining, oil & gas, chemicals, and marine along with its use in commercial buildings, hospitals and shopping malls. Thus, the rapid industrialization, mining activities and infrastructure development activities across the globe can be attributed to the growth of very large generators market globally. However, the fuel efficiency and emission issues of very large generators might pose as a restraint along with the volatile operating and maintaining costs associated with the very large generator. Based on the geographic regions, global very large generator market is divided into seven key regions namely North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, APEJ, Japan, and Middle East & Africa. Among the aforementioned regions, APEJ is the largest market for very large generator due to the rapid industrialization, urbanization and constructional activities in the region, which in turn is fostering the growth of gasoline generator market in the region. The Latin America and Middle East & Africa market for very large generator is followed by the APEJ; the industrial growth along with the mining activities in Latin America and Africa is propelling the demand for very large generator market in these regions. The trend in North America and Europe region is more towards sustainable source of energy for electricity, which in turn is resulting in low demand for very large generators in the region. Overall, the global market for very large generator will register a single digit CAGR by the end of forecast period. Some of the major players identified in the global very large generator market includes, Cummins Power Generation., HarbinGer Generators and Mobile Lighting Towers,   Caterpillar,   Ingersoll Rand, Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd., YANMAR CO., LTD., Inmesol gensets, S.L. Spain., and Atlas Copco Specialty Rental among others. The research report presents a comprehensive assessment of the market and contains thoughtful insights, facts, historical data, and statistically supported and industry-validated market data. It also contains projections using a suitable set of assumptions and methodologies. The research report provides analysis and information according to categories such as market segments, geographies, types, technology and applications. Persistence Market Research (PMR) is a third-platform research firm. Our research model is a unique collaboration of data analytics and market research methodology to help businesses achieve optimal performance. To support companies in overcoming complex business challenges, we follow a multi-disciplinary approach. At PMR, we unite various data streams from multi-dimensional sources. By deploying real-time data collection, big data, and customer experience analytics, we deliver business intelligence for organizations of all sizes.

Lakshminarayanan P.A.,Ashok Leyland | Kanase K.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011

Parameters like brake mean effective pressure, mean velocity of the piston, hardness of the wear surface, oil film thickness, and surface areas of critical wear parts are similar for all the diesel engines. The mean piston velocity at the rated speed is nearly the same for all the diesel engines. The mechanical efficiency normalized to an arbitrary brake mean effective pressure (bmep) is dependent on the size of the engine. The engine life seems to be proportional directly to the square of a characteristic dimension namely, cylinder bore of the engine and inversely to speed and load factor for engines varying widely in sizes and ratings. Copyright © 2011 SAE International.

Hulwan D.B.,Vishwakarma Institute of Technology | Joshi S.V.,Vishwakarma Institute of Technology | Aghav Y.V.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

Potential to reduce the diesel engine emissions of Diesel-Ethanol-Biodiesel blends of high ethanol fraction (DEB blends) has been investigated. Experiments were performed for three DEB blends with oxygen contents of 7.78%, 12.21%, and 14.53% by weight (ethanol content 20%, 30% and 40% by volume) on diesel engines with significantly different engine configurations. The results showed that the HC emissions mainly depend on in cylinder temperatures, and significantly increased for DEB blends at low loads in case of low in cylinder temperature engine. CO emissions are governed by the combination of excess air and in cylinder temperature and oxygen in fuel helped to reduce it when the engine works with richer mixtures. NO emissions are predominantly dependent on excess air compared to the in cylinder temperature and oxygen in fuel has minor effect on it. The effect of oxygen in fuel on smoke reduction is more significant if the engines are working with rich mixtures. However, peak smoke during free acceleration mainly depends on fuel combustion quality, excess air and air fuel mixing ability of the engine rather than the oxygen in fuels and in cylinder temperature. Copyright © 2013 SAE International and Copyright © 2013 SIAT, India.

Mohammed U.A.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. | Gokhale N.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. | Pardeshi S.,College of Engineering, Pune | Gokhale U.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. | Kumar M.N.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

The stringent emission norms and increasing demand for engines with higher power density lead to an extensive investigation of parameters affecting combustion performance. Recent emission norms have forced the engine manufacturers to reduce the Particulate matter (PM) emissions along with other emissions substantially. In order to achieve lo PM emissions the lubrication oil consumption need to be controlled by optimizing piston group design with low liner bore distortion. Bore Distortion is the deviation of actual profile from perfect circular profile at any plane perpendicular to axis of cylinder. Liner bore distortion in engines causes' number of problems like deterioration of piston ring performance, liner-ring conformability issues, high lubricating oil consumption and emissions. Besides traditional prediction of stresses, fatigue life and verification by mechanical testing, the prediction of liner bore distortion is one of today's most important topics in crankcase structure development. Low bore distortion opens up potential for optimized piston group design. The research work focuses on analyzing the parameters affecting liner bore distortion in DI Diesel engines. The study has been carried out on direct injection diesel engine of heavy duty off-highway application with top hung liner. The effects of variation in gasket thickness, liner thickness, number of cylinder head bolts and bolt pre load on liner bore distortion are analyzed successfully. Firstly, a FEA model of crankcase-liner-cylinder head assembly has been developed and the bore distortion results are compared with actual measurements on engine. An extensive analysis has been carried out to study effect of four parameters considered on liner bore distortion. Thus the present research work helps to bridge the gap between understanding the effect of these parameters on liner bore distortion occurrence, lube oil consumption and hence PM emissions. Copyright © 2015 SAE International and Copyright © SAEINDIA.

Kamat P.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd | Aghav Y.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd | Gokhale N.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd | Kumar M.N.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd
SAE International Journal of Engines | Year: 2015

An innovative Diffusive Air Jet (DAJ) Combustion Chamber concept has been introduced in the present work. The DAJ Combustion Chamber design is based on the study of rate of heat release (ROHR) curve and its correlation with emission generation. The objective is to lower the trade-off between NOx and soot without sacrificing fuel economy of Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine. DAJ Combustion Chamber modifies ROHR curve to the desired one so that it lowers engine out emissions. To study its effect, a large bore, six cylinder engine with mechanical fuel injection system has been used. Three dimensional simulation software is used for the model calibration of basic reentrant cavity. Local emissions and ROHR curve have been studied using reentrant cavity shape. It has been modified to DAJ Combustion Chamber using Air Jet Chambers (AJCs). AJCs are positioned in the three dimensional model in such a way that they affect local in-cylinder emissions. Combustion in the DAJ combustion chamber has been studied at two different load conditions at the same engine speed. The results obtained with DAJ Combustion Chamber have been validated experimentally for the selected multi cylinder engine. In this paper simulation and experimental results with basic reentrant cavity and DAJ Combustion Chamber have been discussed in detail. Effectiveness of DAJ combustion chamber is further explored during experimentation which has been covered in this paper. © 2015 SAE International and Copyright © SAEINDIA.

Desai D.R.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. | Suryawanshi S.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. | Deshmukh B.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

Developing countries like India is now highly relying on the alternate source of power generation to have uninterrupted power supply for their economic development. Diesel Power generator is one of the solutions in meeting the uninterrupted power requirement. In India, Power generating sets are having stringent emission norms and also the present government policies of removing subsides from Diesel fuel adding the additional burden on operating cost. As such researcher has a tough task to design the product considering the stringent requirement of legislation and performance. The main focus of this research work is to address performance necessities and the noise legislation. The detail methodology has been laid down to analyze and optimize performance and noise of Diesel Generator with respect to cooling system. Cooling fan with drive arrangement has been selected to study the canopied Diesel Generator performance and overall noise emission. Earlier research reveals that Fan power directly proportional to cube of fan speed [1], [2]. Also Fan speed is major contributor to noise emission of Diesel Generator. After extensive literature survey, eddy current principle with clutch mechanism is selected to analyze the effect on Diesel Generator performance. Study has been carried out with 500 kVA Diesel Generator as per ISO 8528. The complete load matrix has been derived to study the effect on fuel consumption. The analysis revealed very high reduction in fuel consumption at lower load and is up to 12.9%, whereas at higher load is up to 2.8%. Study also focused on simulated field condition and 5% fuel consumption reduction is achieved over the complete cycle. Similar analysis has been carried out to study the effect on noise emission and measurement has been carried out as per the guidelines of ISO 8528, Part 10. The detailed analysis with classical calculation has been done and 4% weighted noise emission reduction has been observed. Thus the eddy current principle with clutch mechanism for fan drive is one of the promising solutions to enhance the performance and reduce noise of Diesel Generator. Copyright © 2015 SAE International and Copyright © SAEINDIA.

Gandhi N.G.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. | Aghav Y.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. | Gokhale N.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. | Kumar M.N.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

Development trend in diesel engines is to downsize and develop more power from same size of engine. This requires additional air flow and hence increased boost pressure ratio (BPR). With increased brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), the altitude capability of engine reduces. This paper presents a novel approach to estimate the altitude capability of engine and calculate deration factor. As the altitude above sea level increases, ambient pressure decreases, air becomes thinner. For same altitude, ambient temperature also varies as per seasonal changes. This results in change (reduction) in ambient air density. This reduction has significant effect on turbocharger (TC), Intercooler and engine performance. Beyond a limiting altitude, engine performance shall be compromised to avoid any damage to engine and its components. This study presents the effect of change in ambient temperature and pressure on engine, Intercooler and TC performance parameters such as AFR, Power, turbocharger speed, Compressor outlet temperature, Compressor Efficiency etc. This paper presents a scientific theoretical approach to calculate the deration factor for a Turbocharged after cooled engine as a function of ambient temperature and ambient pressure by taking into account the designed limiting boundary conditions of a TC, Intercooler and engine components. This paper also studies the effect of emission reduction strategies on change in deration factor. This paper also compares the deration factor for engines with different levels of boost pressure ratios i.e. the effect of change in engine BMEP and BPR on the altitude capability of engine. Copyright © 2015 SAE International and Copyright © SAEINDIA.

Gandhi N.G.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd | Gokhale N.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd | Aghav Y.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd | Kumar M.N.,Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

Indian emission norms for stationary Gensets are upgraded from CPCB I to CPCB II. These new emission norms call for a significant change in emission limits. CPCB II emission norms call for 62% reduction in NOx+HC and 33% reduction in particulates for engines above 75 kW up to 800 kW power range compared to existing CPCB I norms. CPCB II norms are more stringent as compared to European Stage IIIA and CEV BS III. To meet equivalent emission norms in US and Europe most of the engine manufacturers have used Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) or electronic unit injection as the fuel injection technology. This paper describes mechanical fuel injection solution for meeting CPCB II emission norms on engines between 93 kW up to 552 kW with acceptable fuel consumption values. The paper presents simulation and experimentation work carried out to achieve the norms for the said power ratings. It describes the optimization strategy for controlling combustion related parameters viz. fuel injection system, air supply system i.e. turbocharger, Piston cavity, Swirl, Valve timing etc. to have a better tradeoff between NOx-PM and NOx-BSFC. With the given solution it is also observed that the part load fuel consumption values obtained are better when compared to the CRDI system. Copyright © 2015 SAE International and Copyright © SAEINDIA.

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