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In the analysis by Parry et al. [Parry, J. M., Parry, E., Phrakonkham, P. and Corvi, R. (2010) Analysis of published data for top concentration considerations in mammalian cell genotoxicity testing. Mutagenesis, 25, 531-538], 24 rodent carcinogens that were negative in the Ames test were identified that were only positive in mammalian cell tests at concentrations between 1 and 10 mM. These carcinogens can be subdivided into four groups as follows: (1) probable non-genotoxic (non-mutagenic) carcinogens, tumour promoters or negative for genotoxicity in vivo (n=10); (2) questionable carcinogens (n=4); (3) carcinogens with a probable genotoxic mode of action (n=5); (4) compounds where carcinogenicity or in vivo genotoxicity is unknown or unclear (n=5). It is not expected that in vitro mammalian cell tests should give positive results with Group 1 chemicals. Within Groups 2-4, five chemicals were considered a low priority because they could be detected using modified conditions because genotoxicity was associated with precipitate or pH shifts or because non-standard metabolism was required. The remaining nine chemicals were therefore considered most critical in terms of detection of genotoxic activity in mammalian cells. Daminozide was also included because it may have given positive responses between 1 and 10 mM. Many of the reported studies could have given positive results only at >1 mM because 'old' protocols were followed. These 10 chemicals have therefore been retested using modern protocols. Some were negative even up to 10 mM. Others were positive at concentrations <1 mM. Only methylolacrylamide was positive at a concentration >1 mM (2 mM = 202 μg/ml). Low-molecular weight substances may therefore require concentrations >1 mM, but further work is needed. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the 10 mM upper limit in mammalian cell tests can be lowered without any loss of sensitivity in detecting genotoxic rodent carcinogens. A new limit of 1 mM or 500 μg/ml, whichever is the higher, is proposed. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved.


Kirkland D.,Kirkland Consulting | Reeve L.,Covance | Gatehouse D.,Old Barn | Vanparys P.,Altoxicon BVBA
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2011

In vitro genotoxicity testing needs to include tests in both bacterial and mammalian cells, and be able to detect gene mutations, chromosomal damage and aneuploidy. This may be achieved by a combination of the Ames test (detects gene mutations) and the in vitro micronucleus test (MNvit), since the latter detects both chromosomal aberrations and aneuploidy. In this paper we therefore present an analysis of an existing database of rodent carcinogens and a new database of in vivo genotoxins in terms of the in vitro genotoxicity tests needed to detect their in vivo activity. Published in vitro data from at least one test system (most were from the Ames test) were available for 557 carcinogens and 405 in vivo genotoxins. Because there are fewer publications on the MNvit than for other mammalian cell tests, and because the concordance between the MNvit and the in vitro chromosomal aberration (CAvit) test is so high for clastogenic activity, positive results in the CAvit test were taken as indicative of a positive result in the MNvit where there were no, or only inadequate data for the latter. Also, because Hprt and Tk loci both detect gene-mutation activity, a positive Hprt test was taken as indicative of a mouse-lymphoma Tk assay (MLA)-positive, where there were no data for the latter. Almost all of the 962 rodent carcinogens and in vivo genotoxins were detected by an in vitro battery comprising Ames. +. MNvit. An additional 11 carcinogens and six in vivo genotoxins would apparently be detected by the MLA, but many of these had not been tested in the MNvit or CAvit tests. Only four chemicals emerge as potentially being more readily detected in MLA than in Ames. +. MNvit - benzyl acetate, toluene, morphine and thiabendazole - and none of these are convincing cases to argue for the inclusion of the MLA in addition to Ames. +. MNvit. Thus, there is no convincing evidence that any genotoxic rodent carcinogens or in vivo genotoxins would remain undetected in an in vitro test battery consisting of Ames. +. MNvit. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Fowler P.,Colworth Science Park | Smith R.,Covance | Smith K.,Covance | Young J.,Quotient Bioresearch Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2014

We have demonstrated previously that the seemingly high rate of "false" or "misleading" positive results from in vitro micronucleus assays (MNvit) was greater when rodent derived cell lines and certain toxicity measures, such as relative cell count or replication index, were used. These studies suggested that the use of a human cell type with functional p53 and a toxicity measure that included a function of cell proliferation could dramatically reduce the detection of misleading positive results. A reduced "false positive rate" should not be at the expense of a loss of sensitivity of the assay. Therefore, we have investigated the sensitivity of the MNvit assay to known genotoxic agents using three cell types shown previously to be less prone to misleading positives, namely human lymphocytes (HuLy), TK6 and HepG2 cells. The 17 chemicals are well characterised and are from a list of chemicals known to produce positive results in in vitro mammalian cell assays.These data demonstrated a high sensitivity of the assay in which TK6 and HuLy cells were employed, such that 15 out of the 17 chemicals were correctly identified. By contrast, the use of HepG2 cells resulted in far fewer than expected positive responses. In conclusion, using TK6 and HuLy cells in preference to long established rodent cell lines in order to improve specificity does not compromise the sensitivity of the MNvit to detect known genotoxic agents. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Kirkland D.,Kirkland Consulting | Edwards J.,DSM Nutritional Products AG | Woehrle T.,DSM Nutritional Products AG | Beilstein P.,DSM Nutritional Products AG
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2015

The phenolic anti-oxidant 3-hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a major constituent of olives and olive oil. Published data showed it was negative in the Ames test at concentrations up to 5. μL per plate, but did induce chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes. HIDROX, an olive extract containing approximately 2.4% HT, was reported as both positive and equivocal in an Ames test in different papers from the same laboratory. Negative results for micronucleus induction in vivo in both an acute study and as part of a 90-day rat toxicity study were also reported for HIDROX.Given the widespread use and consumption of olives, olive oil and olive extracts, it was important to obtain more data. Here we confirm that pure HT, and an olive extract containing 15% HT, both induced micronuclei in cultured cells in vitro, but show that these responses were either due to high levels of cytotoxicity or to reaction of HT with culture medium components to produce hydrogen peroxide. Another extract (H40) containing 40% HT also induced micronuclei in vitro, probably via the same mechanism. However, both extracts were negative in robust Ames tests.The 15% HT formulated extract did not induce micronuclei in rat bone marrow after 4 weeks of dosing up to 561. mg HT/kg/day. H40 produced increased rat bone marrow micronucleus frequencies at 250 and 500. mg HT/kg/day in a 90-day toxicity study, but the results were questionable for various reasons. However, when two different batches of this extract were tested in acute micronucleus studies at doses up to 2000. mg HT/kg, giving plasma exposures that exceeded those in the 90-day study, negative results were obtained. Based on weight of evidence it is concluded that the olive extracts tested are not genotoxic at high doses in vivo, and any genotoxic risks for human consumers are negligible. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Fowler P.,Covance | Whitwell J.,Covance | Jeffrey L.,Covance | Young J.,Covance | And 2 more authors.
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2010

The following genotoxic chemicals were tested in the in vitro micronucleus assay, at Covance Laboratories, Harrogate, UK in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6. Cadmium chloride (an inorganic carcinogen), benzo[a]pyrene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon requiring metabolic activation) and cyclophosphamide (an alkylating agent requiring metabolic activation) were treated with and without cytokinesis block (by addition of cytochalasin B). This work formed part of a collaborative evaluation of the toxicity measures recommended in the draft OECD Test Guideline 487 for the in vitro micronucleus test. The toxicity measures used, capable of detecting both cytostasis and cell death, were relative population doubling, relative increase in cell counts and relative cell counts for treatments in the absence of cytokinesis block, and replication index or cytokinesis blocked proliferation index in the presence of cytokinesis block. All of the chemicals tested gave significant increases in the percentage of micronucleated cells with and without cytokinesis block at concentrations giving approximately 60% toxicity (cytostasis and cell death) or less by all of the toxicity measures used.The outcomes from this series of tests support the use of relative increase in cell counts and relative population doubling, as well as relative cell counts, as appropriate measures of cytotoxicity for the non-cytokinesis blocked in the in vitro micronucleus assay. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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