Coleman J.,Virginia Commonwealth University |
Williams A.,Virginia Commonwealth University |
Phan T.-H.T.,Virginia Commonwealth University |
Mummalaneni S.,Virginia Commonwealth University |
And 8 more authors.
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2011
Strain differences between naive, sucrose- and ethanol-exposed alcohol- preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats were investigated in their consumption of ethanol, sucrose, and NaCl; chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sweet and salty stimuli; and gene expression in the anterior tongue of T1R3 and TRPV1/TRPV1t. Preference for 5% ethanol and 10% sucrose, CT responses to sweet stimuli, and T1R3 expression were greater in naive P rats than NP rats. The enhancement of the CT response to 0.5 M sucrose in the presence of varying ethanol concentrations (0.5-40%) in naive P rats was higher and shifted to lower ethanol concentrations than NP rats. Chronic ingestion of 5% sucrose or 5% ethanol decreased T1R3 mRNA in NP and P rats. Naive P rats also demonstrated bigger CT responses to NaCl+benzamil and greater TRPV1/TRPV1t expression. TRPV1t agonists produced biphasic effects on NaCl+benzamil CT responses, enhancing the response at low concentrations and inhibiting it at high concentrations. The concentration of a TRPV1/TRPV1t agonist (Maillard reacted peptides conjugated with galacturonic acid) that produced a maximum enhancement in the NaCl+benzamil CT response induced a decrease in NaCl intake and preference in P rats. In naive P rats and NP rats exposed to 5% ethanol in a no-choice paradigm, the biphasic TRPV1t agonist vs. NaCl+benzamil CT response profiles were higher and shifted to lower agonist concentrations than in naive NP rats. TRPV1/TRPV1t mRNA expression increased in NP rats but not in P rats exposed to 5% ethanol in a no-choice paradigm. We conclude that P and NP rats differ in T1R3 and TRPV1/ TRPV1t expression and neural and behavioral responses to sweet and salty stimuli and to chronic sucrose and ethanol exposure. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.
Hoshi A.,Kirin Company Ltd |
Aoki S.,Kirin Company Ltd |
Kouno E.,Kirin Kyowa Foods Company Ltd |
Ogasawara M.,Kirin Kyowa Foods Company Ltd |
And 3 more authors.
Chemical Senses | Year: 2014
One of the most important themes in the development of foods and drinks is the accurate evaluation of taste properties. In general, a sensory evaluation system is frequently used for evaluating food and drink. This method, which is dependent on human senses, is highly sensitive but is influenced by the eating experience and food palatability of individuals, leading to subjective results. Therefore, a more effective method for objectively estimating taste properties is required. Here we show that salivary hemodynamic signals, as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy, are a useful objective indicator for evaluating sour taste stimulus. In addition, the hemodynamic responses of the parotid gland are closely correlated to the salivary secretion volume of the parotid gland in response to basic taste stimuli and respond to stimuli independently of the hedonic aspect. Moreover, we examined the hemodynamic responses to complex taste stimuli in food-based solutions and demonstrated for the first time that the complicated phenomenon of the "masking effect," which decreases taste intensity despite the additional taste components, can be successfully detected by near-infrared spectroscopy. In summary, this study is the first to demonstrate near-infrared spectroscopy as a novel tool for objectively evaluating complex sour taste properties in foods and drinks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Kirin Kyowa Foods Company | Date: 2013-07-25
Meat tenderizers for industrial purposes; stabilizers for food, except preparations for stiffening whipped cream; thickeners for food; emulsifiers for food; antioxidant for food; mildew proofing agents; ferments for chemical purposes; chemicals for maintaining freshness of food and preserving foodstuffs; activated carbons; filtering clarificants and preservatives; calcium salt; lecithin (raw material); plasticizers; hydrolyzed protein (raw material); hydrolyzed protein for the food industry; food processing enzymes; enzymes for industrial purposes; fermented polysaccharide derived from microorganisms; hydrolyzed protein for food additives and food fillers; anti-aging agents; chelating agents; conditioning agents for food, except those for medical purposes; chemicals for use as an additive to food; other chemicals; artificial sweeteners; flour and starch for industrial purposes. Fungicides for kitchen purposes; alcohol formulation; pharmaceutical preparations; veterinary and sanitary preparations; empty capsules for pharmaceuticals; dietary supplements for humans; lactose for pharmaceutical purposes; lacteal flour for babies; additives to fodder for animals for non-medical use. Edible oils and fats; milk products; frozen vegetables; frozen fruits; meat extracts; gelatine; other processed meat products; processed seafood products containing seaweed extracts or seafood extracts; other processed seafood products; dried vegetables; dried fruits; vegetable extracts for food; other processed vegetables and fruits; white of eggs; yolk of eggs; powdered eggs; other processed eggs; instant or pre-cooked soup; curry, stew and soup mixes; soup; dried flakes of laver mixes for sprinkling on rice in hot water Ochazuke mixes; dried flakes of fish, meat, vegetables or seaweed Furi-kake; protein for human consumption. Sausage binding materials; thickening agents for cooking foodstuffs mainly consisting of fermented polysaccharide derived from microorganisms; binding agents for ice cream; meat tenderizers for household purposes; preparations for stiffening whipped cream; flavorings for beverages, other than essential oils; flavorings, other than essential oils; aromatic preparations for food, not from essential oils; confectionery; bread and buns; sandwiches; steamed buns stuffed with minced meat Chinese-manjuh; hamburgers; pizzas; hot dogs; meat pies; umami seasonings; seasonings containing meat extracts, seafood extracts or vegetable extracts; mirin-based seasonings; Japanese shochu-based seasonings; sake-based seasonings; Japanese liquors-based seasonings; wine-based seasonings; seasonings mainly consisting of hydrolyzed protein; soya bean paste; Worcester sauce; meat gravies; ketchup; soya sauce; vinegar; vinegar mixes; seasoning soy sauce Soba-tsuyu; salad dressings; tomato sauce; white sauce; mayonnaise; sauces for barbecued meat; cube sugar; fructose for culinary purposes; crystal sugar not confectionary; sugar; maltose for culinary purposes; honey; glucose for culinary purposes; powdered starch syrup for culinary purposes; starch syrup for culinary purposes; molasses for food; natural sweeteners; other seasonings other than spices; ice cream mixes; sherbet mixes; cereal preparations; frozen dough; rice porridge Zousui; rice gruel Kayu; yeast powder; koji fermented malted rice; yeast in pill form, except those for medical purposes; ferments for pastes; yeast extract; other yeast; baking powder; malt extract for food; instant confectionery mixes; rice; husked oats; husked barley; flour premixes; cake powder; starch for food; soya flour; other flour; gluten for food. Edible seaweeds; vegetables (fresh); fruits (fresh); copra; foxtail millet (unprocessed); proso millet (unprocessed); sesame (unprocessed); buckwheat (unprocessed); corn (unprocessed grain); Japanese barnyard millet (unprocessed); wheat, barley and oats unprocessed; unprocessed rice; sorghum (unprocessed); protein for animal consumption; animal foodstuffs; additives to fodder, except those for medical and nutrition purposes; yeast for animal consumption. Japanese white liquor Shochu; Japanese shochu-based mixed liquor Mirin; other Japanese liquors (in general); western liquors (in general); Western liquors for cooking; alcoholic fruit beverages; alcoholic fruit beverages for cooking; Japanese shochu-based beverages Chuhai; Chinese liquors (in general); flavored liquors. Retail services or wholesale services for foods and beverages; retail services or wholesale services for cosmetics and toiletries. Testing, inspection or research of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics or foodstuff. Providing foods and beverages.