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Yuksel I.,Kirikkale University | Dagdeviren M.,Gazi University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2010

Balanced Scorecard (BSC), which is used as a strategic evaluation tool, is a method of determining business performance using lagging and leading indicators on the basis of vision and strategies. The method suggests that business performance should be evaluated not only by using financial indicators but also simultaneously considering non-financial indicators. It has been revealed in the review of relevant literature that despite the satisfying levels achieved in conceptual and theoretical dimension of Balanced Scorecard, the method has some deficiencies in terms of implementation on a quantitative basis and that there remain some problems to be resolved. Subject of this study covered the measurement and evaluation dimension of BSC. In the scope of the study, BSC approach was integrated with fuzzy ANP technique so as to determine the performance level of a business on the basis of its vision and strategies. Proposed model has shown that performance indicators with different structures included in BSC approach can be consolidated with the help of fuzzy ANP technique. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gencay Y.E.,Kirikkale University
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2014

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a globally important foodborne pathogen and has been mainly associated with cattle as the reservoir. However, accumulating data shows the importance of sheep as an E. coli O157:H7 vehicle. The presence of E. coli O157/O157:H7 in recto-anal mucosal swap and carcass sponge samples of 100 sheep brought to the slaughterhouse in Kirikkale were analyzed over a year. Molecular characteristics (stx1, stx2, eaeA, hly, lpfA1-3, espA, eae-α1, eae-α2, eae-β, eae-β1, eae-β2, eae-γ1, eae-γ2/θ, stx1c, stx1d, stx2c, stx2d, stx2e, stx2f, stx2g, blaampC, tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(D), tet(E), tet(G), sul1, sul2, floR, cmlA, strA, strB and aadA) of 79 isolates were determined and minimum inhibitory concentrations of 20 different antibiotics were investigated. E. coli O157/O157:H7 was found in 18% of sheep included in the study and was more prevalent in yearlings than lambs and mature sheep, and male than female sheep, though none of the categories (season, sex or age range) had significant effect on prevalence. Furthermore, Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 was determined in 2% and 8% of sheep feces and carcasses, respectively. Additionally, lpfA1-3 and eae-γ1 were detected in all isolates. None of the isolates showed resistance against investigated antibiotics, even though 4 sorbitol fermenting E. coli O157 isolates were positive for tet(A), sul1 and aadA. This is the first study in Turkey that reveals the potential public health risk due to the contamination of sheep carcasses with potentially highly pathogenic STEC O157:H7 strains. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Purpose: To test the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) measurements of the normal liver, kidney and spleen parenchyma with different b values. Materials and methods: Eleven healthy volunteers were imaged twice with use of the same protocol. Each DWI was performed with b-factors of 0, 100 and 500 s/mm2. The ADCs were organized according to session (1 or 2), anatomic location and repetition (twice with two different b value per session). The ADC data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance to demonstrate the influence of anatomic location, session and different b values. The coefficient of variation was calculated for each subject, b value and anatomic location, then analyzed by using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: There were significant differences in mean ADCs among the three anatomic locations and with different b values (P <.05). There were no significant differences in ADCs between imaging sessions 1 or 2 for both b values (P >.05). The CV values range between 7.3% and 14.7%. There were no significant differences in CV values neither between the two b values nor for the various organ locations (P >.05). Conclusion: Using the same technical parameters, patients and the same observer, CV values range between 7.3% and 14.7%. And we recommend to be careful in examination and comparison of the measured ADC values, below these limits, without knowledge technical parameters that has been used, otherwise differences that are merely because of changes in the measurement technique could be interpreted as differences because of progression of disease or therapy. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Isiklan N.,Kirikkale University | Kucukbalci G.,Kirikkale University
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics | Year: 2012

The first decade of the 21st century saw an increasing interest in the development of devices and biomaterials for delivery of bioactive substances that can be controlled by external stimuli. This study deals with the production of novel pH and temperature responsive beads for colon-specific delivery of indomethacine (IM). For this purpose, N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) was grafted onto sodium alginate (NaAlg) with microwave radiation in aqueous solution. The graft copolymer (NaAlg-g-PNIPAAm) was characterized by using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis. A series of pH- and temperature-responsive NaAlg-g-PNIPAAm beads were prepared as drug delivery matrices of indomethacine cross-linked by glutaraldehyde (GA) in the hydrochloric acid catalyst. Preparation condition of the beads was optimized by considering the percentage entrapment efficiency, particle size, swelling capacity of beads, and their release data. Effects of variables such as graft yield, drug/polymer ratio, exposure time to GA, and concentration of GA on the release of IM were investigated and discussed at two different pH values (1.2 and 7.4) and temperatures (25°C and 37°C). It was observed that IM release from the beads decreased when the grafting of NIPAAm, drug/polymer ratio (d/p), and extent of cross-linking were increased. The results also showed that NaAlg-g-PIPAAm beads were positive pH and temperature responsive. The release of IM from grafted beads was slower for the pH 1.2 solution than that of the pH 7.4 buffer solution, whereas the release rate was higher at 37°C than at 25°C. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Acar T.,Kirikkale University
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences | Year: 2015

In this paper, we introduce new modifications of Szász-Mirakyan operators based on (p,q)-integers. We first give a recurrence relation for the moments of new operators and present explicit formula for the moments and central moments up to order 4. Some approximation properties of new operators are explored: the uniform convergence over bounded and unbounded intervals is established, direct approximation properties of the operators in terms of the moduli of smoothness is obtained and Voronovskaya theorem is presented. For the particular case p = 1, the previous results for q-Sz ász-Mirakyan operators are captured. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Eren T.,Kirikkale University
Eurasip Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking | Year: 2011

This article provides the graphical properties which can ensure unique localizability in cooperative networks with hybrid distance and bearing (angle of arrival) measurements. Furthermore, within the networks satisfying these graphical properties, this article identifies further sets of conditions so that the associated computational complexity becomes linear in the number of sensor nodes. We show how, by forming a spanning tree used once for distances and a second time for bearings where the underlying graph is connected, the localization problem can be made solvable in linear time with significantly less number of sensing links and smaller sensing radii of nodes compared with the cooperative networks with distance-only or bearing-only measurements. These easily localizable networks can be localized in polynomial time when measurements are noisy. © 2011 Eren; licensee Springer.

Tuzun E.H.,Kirikkale University
Disability and rehabilitation | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status, and provide information regarding anthropometric measurements of cerebral-palsied children living in the city of Ankara, Turkey. A total of 447 children with cerebral palsy (CP) were participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were assessed for functional motor impairment by the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS). Assesment of nutritional status was based on the triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), arm fat area (AFA) estimates derived from TSF and mid-upper arm circumference measurements. TSF and AFA Z-scores were computed using reference data. Cerebral-palsied children had lower TSF and AFA Z-scores compared to reference data from healthy children. The prevalence of underweight and overweight among boys was 8.3 and 9.5%, respectively, whereas it was 19.0 and 0.5% for girls. Underweight was more prevalent in the low functioning children than in moderate functioning children. The findings of this study indicate that cerebral-palsied children face nutritional challenges. Underweight is more prevalent than overweight among cerebral-palsied children. To optimize the outcomes of rehabilitation and prevention efforts, an understanding of the heterogeneity of nutritional status among children with CP is required.

Eren T.,Kirikkale University
International Journal of Control | Year: 2012

Distance measurements are not the only geometric quantities that can be used for multi-agent formation shape control. Bearing measurements can be used in conjunction with distances. This article employs bearing rigidity for mobile formations, which was developed for robot and sensor network localisation, so that bearings can be used for shape control in mobile formations. The first part of this article examines graph theoretical models for formation network analysis and control law design that are needed to maintain the shape of a formation in two-dimensional space, while the formation moves as a cohesive whole. Bearing-based shape control for a formation of mobile agents involves the design of distributed control laws that ensure the formation moves, so that bearing constraints maintain some desired values. The second part of this article focuses on the design of a distributed control scheme for nonholonomic agents to solve the bearing-based formation shape control problem. In particular, a control law using feedback linearisation is proposed based on shape variables. We simulate the shape control behaviour on differential drive agents for an exemplary bearing rigid formation using the results obtained in the first and second parts of this article. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Kalpaklioglu A.F.,Kirikkale University | Kalkan I.K.,Kirikkale University
American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy | Year: 2012

Background: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-known marker of airway inflammation, is rarely evaluated in rhinitis of different etiology. We aimed to compare the eNO levels in allergic rhinitis (AR) and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) with/without asthma, as well as the contributing factors that interfere with elevated FeNO. Methods: Patients were enrolled based on chronic nasal symptoms. Orally exhaled NO was measured with the single exhalation method at 50 mL/s. All subjects underwent a panel of tests: skin-prick tests, asthma control test, blood sampling, spirometry, and health-related quality-of-life questionnaires. Results: The study group consisted of mainly women (130 women/41 men), with a mean age of 32.6 ± 13.2 years. AR was diagnosed in 122 (78.2%), NAR in 34 (21.8%), and 15 subjects were healthy controls. FeNO was insignificantly higher in patients with AR compared with patients with NAR and controls (32.2 parts per billion [ppb] versus 27 and 19.4 ppb), with no difference between genders. NAR + asthma had higher FeNO than those without asthma (40.5 ppb versus 14.9 ppb; p < 0.03), whereas accompanying asthma did not affect FeNO levels in the AR group. AR ± asthma had significantly higher FeNO levels than the NAR-only group (p < 0.01). Among AR + asthma, perennial sensitization caused higher FeNO levels than did seasonal allergens (48.5 ± 33.9 and 19.5 ± 13.6′ p = 0.003), whereas FeNO was significantly higher during the allergen season. Nasally inhaled corticosteroids insignificantly reduced FeNO levels in all groups. Severity and seasonality of rhinitis, asthma, and ocular symptoms, but not gender, age, body mass index, Total IgE, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and smoking, were associated with FeNO. Conclusion: Rhinitis and comorbid asthma are responsible for increased FeNO, irrespective of atopy. However, NAR without asthma may not be considered as a strong risk factor for airway inflammation. Copyright © 2012, OceanSide Publications, Inc.

In this paper, a modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by electrochemical method in basic media (0.5 M NaOH solutions) and was used to electrochemically detect dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA) and their mixture by a differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique. In this simultaneous detection, the electrochemical potential difference between AA and DA was measured to be 165 mV, while between DA and UA it was 135 mV, and between AA and UA 300 mV. The potential differences were large enough to determine AA, DA, and UA individually and simultaneously. The DPV oxidation peak current was linearly dependent on DA, AA, and UA concentration in the range 3-30 μM, 25-300 μM, and 5-70 μM, with correlation coefficients of 0.994, 0.998, and 0.996, respectively. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was found to be 2.67, 23.38 and 4.70 μM for DA, AA and UA. The modified electrode was applied to the determination of DA, AA, and UA in real samples. These results and interference studies showed that the modified electrode possesses the potential for simultaneous determination of DA, AA, and UA. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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