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Heidelberg, Germany

Petrich W.,Kirchhoff Institute for Physics
Faraday Discussions | Year: 2016

The Faraday Discussion meeting "Advanced Vibrational Spectroscopy for Biomedical Applications" provided an excellent opportunity to share and discuss recent research and applications on a highly interdisciplinary level. Spectral pathology, single cell analysis, data handling, clinical spectroscopy, and the spectral analysis of biofluids were among the topics covered during the meeting. The focus on discussion rather than "merely" presentation was highly appreciated and fruitful discussions evolved around the interpretation of the amide-bands, optical resolution, the role of diffraction and data analysis procedure, to name a few. The meeting made clear that the spectroscopy of molecular vibrations in biomolecules has evolved from a purely academic research tool to a technology used in clinical practice in some cases. In this sense, biomedical vibrational spectroscopy has reached a pivotal point at which questions like diagnostic value, therapeutic consequence and financial viability are gaining more and more importance. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Muller P.,Kirchhoff Institute for Physics
International journal of molecular sciences | Year: 2010

With the completeness of genome databases, it has become possible to develop a novel FISH (Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization) technique called COMBO-FISH (COMBinatorial Oligo FISH). In contrast to other FISH techniques, COMBO-FISH makes use of a bioinformatics approach for probe set design. By means of computer genome database searching, several oligonucleotide stretches of typical lengths of 15-30 nucleotides are selected in such a way that all uniquely colocalize at the given genome target. The probes applied here were Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs)-synthetic DNA analogues with a neutral backbone-which were synthesized under high purity conditions. For a probe repetitively highlighted in centromere 9, PNAs labeled with different dyes were tested, among which Alexa 488(®) showed reversible photobleaching (blinking between dark and bright state) a prerequisite for the application of SPDM (Spectral Precision Distance/Position Determination Microscopy) a novel technique of high resolution fluorescence localization microscopy. Although COMBO-FISH labeled cell nuclei under SPDM conditions sometimes revealed fluorescent background, the specific locus was clearly discriminated by the signal intensity and the resulting localization accuracy in the range of 10-20 nm for a detected oligonucleotide stretch. The results indicate that COMBO-FISH probes with blinking dyes are well suited for SPDM, which will open new perspectives on molecular nanostructural analysis of the genome. Source

Dregely D.,University of Stuttgart | Neubrech F.,University of Stuttgart | Neubrech F.,Kirchhoff Institute for Physics | Duan H.,Hunan University | And 2 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

Nanoantennas confine electromagnetic fields at visible and infrared wavelengths to volumes of only a few cubic nanometres. Assessing their near-field distribution offers fundamental insight into light-matter coupling and is of special interest for applications such as radiation engineering, attomolar sensing and nonlinear optics. Most experimental approaches to measure near-fields employ either diffraction-limited far-field methods or intricate near-field scanning techniques. Here, using diffraction-unlimited far-field spectroscopy in the infrared, we directly map the intensity of the electric field close to plasmonic nanoantennas. We place a patch of probe molecules with 10 nm accuracy at different locations in the near-field of a resonant antenna and extract the molecular vibrational excitation. We map the field intensity along a dipole antenna and gap-type antennas. Moreover, this method is able to assess the near-field intensity of complex buried plasmonic structures. We demonstrate this by measuring for the first time the near-field intensity of a three-dimensional plasmonic electromagnetically induced transparency structure. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Zakharova G.S.,Kirchhoff Institute for Physics
Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2014

Anatase titanium dioxide nanotubes were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis with subsequent annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere. The outer diameter of particles is 10-15 nm, their inner diameter is 4-6 nm, and their length is several hundreds of nanometers. The structural transformation of polytitanic acid to TiO2, which preserves the tubular morphology until 500 C, was studied by X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analyses, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, and IR and Raman spectroscopies. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Schmitt E.,Kirchhoff Institute for Physics
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2010

With the improvement and completeness of genome databases, it has become possible to develop a novel fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique called COMBinatorial Oligo FISH (COMBO-FISH). In contrast to other (standard) FISH applications, COMBO-FISH makes use of a bioinformatic approach for probe set design. By means of computer genome database search, oligonucleotide stretches of typical lengths of 15-30 nucleotides are selected in such a way that they all colocalize within a given genome (gene) target. Typically, probe sets of about 20-40 stretches are designed within 50-250 kb, which is enough to get an increased fluorescence signal specifically highlighting the target from the background. Although "specific colocalization" is the only necessary condition for probe selection, i.e. the probes of different lengths can be composed of purines and pyrimidines, we additionally refined the design strategy restricting the probe sets to homopurine or homopyrimidine oligonucleotides so that depending on the probe orientation either double (requiring denaturation of the target double strand) or triple (omitting denaturation of the target strand) strand bonding of the probes is possible. The probes used for the protocols described below are DNA or PNA oligonucleotides, which can be synthesized by established automatized techniques. We describe different protocols that were successfully applied to label gene targets via double- or triple-strand bonding in fixed lymphocyte cell cultures, bone marrow smears, and formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax embedded tissue sections. In addition, we present a procedure of probe microinjection in living cells resulting in specific labeling when microscopically detected after fixation. Source

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