Ansan, South Korea
Ansan, South Korea
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Jung H.-S.,KIOST | Lim D.,South Sea Institute | Choi J.-Y.,Kunsan National University | Yoo H.-S.,KIOST | And 2 more authors.
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2012

Rare earth elements (REEs) of bulk sediments and heavy mineral samples of core sediments from the South Sea shelf, Korea, were analyzed to determine the constraints on REE concentrations and distribution patterns as well as to investigate their potential applicability for discriminating sediment provenance. Bulk sediment REEs showed large variation in concentrations and distribution patterns primarily due to grain size and carbonate dilution effects, as well as due to an abundance of heavy minerals. In the fine sandy sediments (cores EZ02-15 and 19), in particular, heavy minerals (primarily monazite and titanite/sphene) largely influenced REE compositions. Upper continental crust-normalized REE patterns of these sand-dominated sediments are characterized by enriched light REEs (LREEs), because of inclusion of heavy minerals with very high concentrations in LREEs. Notably, such a strong LREE enrichment is also observed in Korean river sediments. So, a great care must be taken when using the REE concentrations and distribution patterns of sandy and coarse silty shelf sediments as a proxy for discriminating sediment provenance. In the fine-grained muddy sediments with low heavy mineral abundance, in contrast, REE fractionation ratios and their UCC-normalized patterns seem to be reliable proxies for assessing sediment provenance. The resultant sediment origin suggested a long lateral transportation of some fine-grained Chinese river sediments (probably the Changjiang River) to the South Sea of Korea across the shelf of the northern East China Sea. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Lee D.,KAIST | Kim D.,KAIST | Lee S.,KAIST | Myung H.,KAIST | Choi H.-T.,KIOST
2013 10th International Conference on Ubiquitous Robots and Ambient Intelligence, URAI 2013 | Year: 2013

This paper presents experiments on vision-based localization of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) using graph-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). Relative range and bearing values of each landmark are obtained from image processing results. And a graph structure is built using the landmark detection results and dead-reckoning data of the AUV. The structured graph is optimized by a graph-based SLAM algorithm. Finally, the performance of the graph-based SLAM is compared to an EKF-based SLAM result. © 2013 IEEE.

The Huksan Mud Belt (HMB) has been extensively investigated with respect to its source and evolution since the 1980s. Studies on sediment budget or accumulation rates suggested two different origins, Korean and combined Korean and Chinese. However, neither of the suggested origins appears reliable because they were based on insufficient or inaccurate datasets on the basic sedimentological characteristics of the HMB. Although a major mud transport was inferred to be closely associated with either the Korean Coastal Current or the Yellow Sea Warm Current, their physical characters during the Holocene transgression have been rarely hind-casted thus far. The majority of studies on high-resolution seismic stratigraphy along with core log have suggested that the HMB stratigraphy consists of two units divided by an erosional boundary. The lower unit is further divided into two subunits by a subtle discontinuity that is laterally correlated with the erosional boundary. In line with the stratigraphy, the studies theorized that the erosion of the HMB had produced a re-deposited distal lobe, the younger lower subunit. In addition, this lobe was inferred to have prograded rapidly during the relatively short period of 6,500-5,500 yr B.P. Although the time interval of the erosion coincides with the decelerating rise in sea level, the hydrodynamic cause and effect of the erosion remain inexplicable. Therefore, the source and evolution of the HMB continue to be controversial, due largely to poor understanding of the paleo-physical oceanography of the Yellow Sea during the Holocene. © 2015, Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Oh K.-H.,KIOST | Lee J.-H.,Jeju National University | Lee S.,KIOST | Pang I.-C.,Jeju National University
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2014

Abnormally low-salinity water was detected in the surface layer of the central region of the Yellow Sea in August 2012. The presence of such low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior has never been reported previously. To understand the origin of this low-salinity water, oceanographic and wind data were analyzed, and the circulation of the surface layer was also examined in the Yellow and East China Seas using a numerical ocean model. The results confirmed that typhoons caused the low-salinity water. Two consecutive typhoons passed from east to west across the East China Sea, around the Changjiang Bank in early August 2012. Strong easterly and southeasterly winds created by the typhoons in the Yellow and East China Seas drove the low-salinity water to the north along the coast of China and northeastward toward the central region of the Yellow Sea, respectively. Usually, the northward drifting of Changjiang Diluted Water along the coast of China ends around the Jiangsu coast, where the drifting is blocked and is turned by the offshore Eulerian residual current. Therefore, the Changjiang Diluted Water does not intrude more into the Yellow Sea interior. However, in 2012, the low-salinity water drifted up to the Shandong Peninsula along the coast of China, and formed massive low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior combining with the other low-salinity water extended toward the central region of the Yellow Sea directly from the Changjiang Bank. Thus, the typhoons play a key role in the appearance of abnormally low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior and it means that the Yellow Sea ecosystem could be significantly influenced by the Changjiang Diluted Water. © 2014, Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Yoon J.-J.,Chungnam Development Institute | Jun K.-C.,KIOST
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2015

An integrated model system was developed to apply surge-wave coupled simulations to the southern coast of Korea during Typhoon Sanba in 2012. Numerical experiments were carried out to examine the effects of land-dissipated wind on storm surges and the influence of wave-surge coupled simulations on storm surges and surface waves. These numerical experiments used a finite volume ocean model, FVCOM, coupled with a wave model SWAVE. Due to the complex geometry of the coastal area investigated, a high-resolution terrain-following unstructured grid was employed. Atmospheric forcing was generated by a planetary boundary layer model, which was revised by incorporating the effect of the land’s roughness on the typhoon wind. A detailed comparison shows generally good agreement between the measured and simulated wind, surge, and waves. In particular, improved results have been found for the simulation of storm winds and surges when considering the effect of land-dissipated wind. In addition, clearly improved results for storm surges were obtained when adding the coupling effect between waves and surges. The results show a maximum contribution of ~40% by the waveinduced surge to the peak surge height along the coasts. The mean rate of error for peak surge heights decreased from 29.6% to 21.3% after considering the effects of wind dissipation, and decreased again to 17.9% when adding the effects of the waves. These results imply that the effect of wind dissipation caused by land roughness and waves should be taken into account when determining storm surge heights. The results also show the effects of wave-current coupling influences the generation of waves. However, the magnitude of this coupling effect on wave heights was found to be relatively insignificant. © 2015, Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Jang G.I.,Seoul National University | Choi D.H.,KIOST
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2015

To understand the temporal and spatial variation of the prokaryotic community in the East Sea, their composition was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-sequencing techniques. The investigations were conducted twice annually in 2007 and 2009 in coastal and offshore stations. Prokaryotic abundance (PA), leucine incorporation rate, and other environmental parameters were also measured. By using the DGGE approach, we obtained 283 bacterial sequences and 160 archaeal sequences. The most frequently detected bacterial phylotypes during the investigations belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. However, their relative compositions differed in time and space. Although Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant groups in the surface water in May 2007 and in May and October 2007, Gammaproteobacteria was dominant in mesopelagic samples. However, Gammaproteobacteria was overwhelmingly dominant in most samples in August 2009. Although Deltaproteobacteria was rarely found as a dominant bacterial group, it occupied the highest fraction in a mesopelagic sample in October 2007. Epsilonproteobacteria also showed a similar trend, although its maximal dominance was found in a mesopelagic sample in August 2009. The archaeal community was dominated overwhelmingly by members of the Euryarchaeota in most of the investigations. However, Nitrosopumilales was dominant in aphotic samples in August 2009. Further, their spatiotemporal composition at the family level changed more dynamically in the East Sea. These temporal and spatial distributions of the prokaryotic community were influenced mainly by seawater temperature and depth in the East Sea. © 2015, Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

The temporal variation of the flow structure and consequent mixing process during the collision of two counter-rotating mesoscale eddies are investigated by analyzing the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model simulation for the Gulf Stream region using Eulerian parameters—Okubo-Weiss parameters and horizontal kinetic energy (KE)—and Lagrangian parameters—finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) and relative dispersion coefficients (Kr). During the collision process, a transport barrier constructed by FSLE ridges develops between the two eddies and hyperbolic points are formed at both ends of the barrier. High values of the shear components of strain (> mean + standard deviation) are observed around the hyperbolic points, indicating possible deformation of the eddy. The magnitudes of spatially averaged KE and FSLE values increase (~20% and ~25%, respectively) during the collision as the flows around the main eddy become more energetic and dispersive. The Eulerian measures—the relative vorticity and the shear components of strain—show different temporal evolutions. The former does not significantly vary (~3%) while the latter has a peak value (~34%) at the time of maximum impact of the collision. In contrast, the Lagrangian measures show a similar pattern of temporal variations as both FSLE and Kr values generally increase (~25% and ~35%, respectively) during the collision, which indicates increased mixing due to the collision. © 2015, Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Jeong H.J.,Seoul National University | Jeong H.J.,Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology | Jang S.H.,Seoul National University | Moestrup O.,Copenhagen University | And 4 more authors.
Algae | Year: 2014

A small dinoflagellate, Ansanella granifera gen. et sp. nov., was isolated from estuarine and marine waters, and examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the identity of the sequences (3,663-bp product) of the small subunit (SSU), internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2), and D1-D3 large subunit (LSU) rDNA were determined. This newly isolated, thin-walled dinoflagellate has a type E eyespot and a single elongated apical vesicle, and it is closely related to species belonging to the family Suessiaceae. A. granifera has 10-14 horizontal rows of amphiesmal vesicles, comparable to Biecheleria spp. and Biecheleriopsis adriatica, but greater in number than in other species of the family Suessiaceae. Unlike Biecheleria spp. and B. adriatica, A. granifera has grana-like thylakoids. Further, A. granifera lacks a nuclear fibrous connective, which is present in B. adriatica. B. adriatica and A. granifera also show a morphological difference in the shape of the margin of the cingulum. In A. granifera, the cingular margin formed a zigzag line, and in B. adriatica a straight line, especially on the dorsal side of the cell. The episome is conical with a round apex, whereas the hyposome is trapezoidal. Cells growing photosynthetically are 10.0-15.0 μm long and 8.5-12.4 μm wide. The cingulum is descending, the two ends displaced about its own width. Cells of A. granifera contain 5-8 peripheral chloroplasts, stalked pyrenoids, and a pusule system, but lack nuclear envelope chambers, a nuclear fibrous connective, lamellar body, rhizocysts, and a peduncle. The main accessory pigment is peridinin. The SSU, ITS regions, and D1-D3 LSU rDNA sequences differ by 1.2-7.4%, >8.8%, and >2.5%, respectively, from those of the other known genera in the order Suessiales. Moreover, the SSU rDNA sequence differed by 1-2% from that of the three most closely related species, Polarella glacialis, Pelagodinium bei, and Protodinium simplex. In addition, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequence differed by 16-19% from that of the three most closely related species, Gymnodinium corii, Pr. simplex, and Pel. bei, and the LSU rDNA sequence differed by 3-4% from that of the three most closely related species, Protodinium sp. CCMP419, B. adriatica, and Gymnodinium sp. CCMP425. A. granifera had a 51-base pair fragment in domain D2 of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA, which is absent in the genus Biecheleria. In the phylogenetic tree based on the SSU and LSU sequences, A. granifera is located in the large clade of the family Suessiaceae, but it forms an independent clade. © 2014 The Korean Society of Phycology.

PubMed | Daegu Haany University, East Sea Research Institute, KIOST, Gyeongbuk Institute for Marine Bio Industry and Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
Type: | Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM | Year: 2015

We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD). The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) and interleukins (ILs). Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF- and ILs (1, 10, 4, 5, and 13) levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects.

PubMed | Neo Environmental Business Co. NeoEnBiz, KIOST, Korea Basic Science Institute and Korea Electronic Technology Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Marine pollution bulletin | Year: 2015

The spatiotemporal distribution and their mass accumulation rate (MAR) of heavy metals were investigated to evaluate the time-dependent historical trends of heavy metal concentration. The three short cores used for this study were collected from the catchment area (MS-PC5, 60cm length), the central part (MS-PC4, 40cm length) and the offshore (MS-PC2, 60cm length) of the Masan Bay, Korea. The concentration of heavy metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb) in catchment area is as much as 1.5-2 times higher than central part of the Bay, and about 2 times higher than offshore area approximately. In particular, MAR of metals (Cu, Zn and Pb) show clear spatiotemporal variation, so that MARs of heavy metal may provide more accurate information in evaluating the degree of pollution. Temporally, the heavy metal concentration had been increased since the late 1970s, but it seems to decrease again since the 2004yr in catchment area. This may came from concentrated efforts for the government to reduce industrial waste release.

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