Xiao D.,Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research |
Xiao D.,Capital Medical University |
Xiao D.,University of British Columbia |
Vanni M.P.,Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research |
And 13 more authors.
eLife | Year: 2017
Understanding the basis of brain function requires knowledge of cortical operations over wide-spatial scales, but also within the context of single neurons. In vivo, wide-field GCaMP imaging and sub-cortical/cortical cellular electrophysiology were used in mice to investigate relationships between spontaneous single neuron spiking and mesoscopic cortical activity. We make use of a rich set of cortical activity motifs that are present in spontaneous activity in anesthetized and awake animals. A mesoscale spike-triggered averaging procedure allowed the identification of motifs that are preferentially linked to individual spiking neurons by employing genetically targeted indicators of neuronal activity. Thalamic neurons predicted and reported specific cycles of wide-scale cortical inhibition/excitation. In contrast, spike-triggered maps derived from single cortical neurons yielded spatio-temporal maps expected for regional cortical consensus function. This approach can define network relationships between any point source of neuronal spiking and mesoscale cortical maps. © Xiao et al.
Zou W.-Q.,Case Western Reserve University |
Xiao X.,Case Western Reserve University |
Yuan J.,Case Western Reserve University |
Puoti G.,Case Western Reserve University |
And 16 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011
The prion protein (PrP) is best known for its association with prion diseases. However, a controversial new role for PrP in Alzheimer disease (AD) has recently emerged. In vitro studies and mouse models of AD suggest that PrP may be involved in AD pathogenesis through a highly specific interaction with amyloid-β (Aβ42) oligomers. Immobilized recombinant human PrP (huPrP) also exhibited high affinity and specificity for Aβ42 oligomers. Here we report the novel finding that aggregated forms of huPrP and Aβ42 are co-purified from AD brain extracts. Moreover, an anti-PrP antibody and an agent that specifically binds to insoluble PrP (iPrP) co-precipitate insoluble Aβ from human AD brain. Finally, using peptide membrane arrays of 99 13-mer peptides that span the entire sequence of mature huPrP, two distinct types of Aβ binding sites on huPrP are identified in vitro. One specifically binds to Aβ42 and the other binds to both Aβ42 and Aβ40. Notably, Aβ42-specific binding sites are localized predominantly in the octapeptide repeat region, whereas sites that bind both Aβ40 and Aβ42 are mainly in the extreme N-terminal or C-terminal domains of PrP. Our study suggests that iPrP is the major PrP species that interacts with insoluble Aβ42 in vivo. Although this work indicated the interaction of Aβ42 with huPrP in the AD brain, the pathophysiological relevance of the iPrP/Aβ42 interaction remains to be established. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Zou W.-Q.,Case Western Reserve University |
Zou W.-Q.,Nanchang University |
Langeveld J.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR |
Xiao X.,Case Western Reserve University |
And 17 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010
The epitope of the 3F4 antibody most commonly used in human prion disease diagnosis is believed to consist of residues Met-Lys-His-Met (MKHM) corresponding to human PrP-(109-112). This assumption is based mainly on the observation that 3F4 reacts with human and hamster PrP but not with PrP from mouse, sheep, and cervids, in which Met at residue 112 is replaced by Val. Here we report that, by brain histoblotting, 3F4 did not react with PrP of uninfected transgenic mice expressing elk PrP; however, it did show distinct immunoreactivity in transgenic mice infected with chronic wasting disease. Compared with human PrP, the 3F4 reactivity with the recombinant elk PrP was 2 orders of magnitude weaker, as indicated by both Western blotting and surface plasmon resonance. To investigate the molecular basis of these species- and conformer-dependent preferences of 3F4, the epitope was probed by peptide membrane array and antigen competition experiments. Remarkably, the 3F4 antibody did not react with MKHM but reacted strongly with KTNMK (corresponding to human PrP-(106-110)), a sequence that is also present in cervids, sheep, and cattle. 3F4 also reacted with elk PrP peptides containing KTNMKHV. We concluded that the minimal sequence for the 3F4 epitope consists of residues KTNMK, and the species- and conformer-dependent preferences of 3F4 arise largely from the interactions between Met112 (human PrP) or Val115 (cervid PrP) and adjacent residues. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Silasi G.,Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research |
Silasi G.,University of British Columbia |
She J.,Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research |
Boyd J.D.,Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2015
We developed a mouse model of small-vessel disease where occlusions are produced through endovascular injection of fluorescent microspheres that target ∼12 μm diameter penetrating arterioles and can be localized in histology. Using Thy1-GFP transgenic mice, we visualized the impact of microocclusions on neuronal structure. Microocclusions in the hippocampus produce cell loss or neuronal atrophy (∼7% of lodged microspheres led to microinfarcts), while axons within white matter tracts, as well as the striatum and thalamus became blebbed or disrupted. Although the neocortex contained more occlusions than other structures, labeled layer 5 neurons were relatively resistant to structural damage, with <2% of the lodged microspheres producing obvious neuronal damage. © 2015 ISCBFM.
Xie Y.,Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research |
Xie Y.,University of British Columbia |
Chan A.W.,Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research |
Chan A.W.,University of British Columbia |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2016
Wide-field-of-view mesoscopic cortical imaging with genetically encoded sensors enables decoding of regional activity and connectivity in anesthetized and behaving mice; however, the kinetics of most genetically encoded sensors can be suboptimal for in vivo characterization of frequency bands higher than 1–3 Hz. Furthermore, existing sensors, in particular those that measure calcium (genetically encoded calcium indicators; GECIs), largely monitor suprathreshold activity. Using a genetically encoded sensor of extracellular glutamate and in vivo mesoscopic imaging, we demonstrate rapid kinetics of virally transduced or transgenically expressed glutamate-sensing fluorescent reporter iGluSnFR. In both awake and anesthetized mice, we imaged an 8×8mmfield of view through an intact transparent skull preparation. iGluSnFR revealed cortical representation of sensory stimuli with rapid kinetics that were also reflected in correlation maps of spontaneous cortical activities at frequencies up to the alpha band (8 –12 Hz). iGluSnFR resolved temporal features of sensory processing such as an intracortical reverberation during the processing of visual stimuli. The kinetics of iGluSnFR for reporting regional cortical signals were more rapid than those for Emx-GCaMP3 and GCaMP6s and comparable to the temporal responses seen with RH1692 voltage sensitive dye (VSD), with similar signal amplitude. Regional cortical connectivity detected by iGluSnFR in spontaneous brain activity identified functional circuits consistent with maps generated from GCaMP3 mice, GCaMP6s mice, or VSD sensors. Viral and transgenic iGluSnFR tools have potential utility in normal physiology, as well as neurologic and psychiatric pathologies in which abnormalities in glutamatergic signaling are implicated. © 2016 the authors.
PubMed | University of British Columbia and Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2015
We developed a mouse model of small-vessel disease where occlusions are produced through endovascular injection of fluorescent microspheres that target ~12 m diameter penetrating arterioles and can be localized in histology. Using Thy1-GFP transgenic mice, we visualized the impact of microocclusions on neuronal structure. Microocclusions in the hippocampus produce cell loss or neuronal atrophy (~7% of lodged microspheres led to microinfarcts), while axons within white matter tracts, as well as the striatum and thalamus became blebbed or disrupted. Although the neocortex contained more occlusions than other structures, labeled layer 5 neurons were relatively resistant to structural damage, with <2% of the lodged microspheres producing obvious neuronal damage.