Jawad A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology |
Butt S.,Lahore Leads University |
Butt S.,Kinnaird College for Women |
Rani S.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2016
Warm inflationary universe models in the context of the generalized Chaplygin gas, the modified Chaplygin gas, and the generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas are being studied. The dissipative coefficient of the form Γ ∝ T, and the weak and the strong dissipative regimes are being considered. We use the quartic potential, λ∗ϕ44, which is ruled out by current data in cold inflation but in our models by analysis it is seen to be in agreement with the WMAP9 and the latest Planck data. In these scenarios, the power spectrum, the spectral index, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio are being examined in the slow-roll approximation. We show the dependence of the tensor–scalar ratio r on the spectral index ns and observe that the range of the tensor–scalar ratio is r< 0.05 in the generalized Chaplygin gas, r< 0.15 in the modified Chaplygin gas, and r< 0.12 in the generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas models. Our results are in agreement with recent observational data like WMAP9 and the latest Planck data. © 2016, The Author(s).
Farrukh A.,Lahore University of Management Sciences |
Akram A.,University of Engineering and Technology Lahore |
Ghaffar A.,University of Engineering and Technology Lahore |
Hanif S.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology |
And 3 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013
Highly efficient removal of mercury(II) ions (HgII) from water has been reported by employing polymer-brush-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Surface-initiated conventional radical polymerization (SI-cRP) was used to grow poly(2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride) (poly-AEMA·HCl) polymer chains on magnetite nanoparticles (Fe 3O4), followed by the transformation of pendant amino groups into dithiocarbamate (DTC) groups, which showed high chelating affinity toward HgII ions. This polymer-brush-based DTC-functionalized MNP (MNPs-polyAEMA·DTC) platform showed the complete removal of Hg II from aqueous solutions. The HgII ion removal capacity and efficiency of MNPs-polyAEMA·DTC were compared with its monolayer analogue, which was derived from the direct transformation of amino groups of (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized MNPs (MNPs-APTES) to DTC functional groups (MNPs-DTC). The surface chemical modifications and higher chelating functional group density, in the case of MNPs-polyAEMA·DTC, were ascertained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), physical property measurement system (PPMS), attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The HgII ion removal capacity and efficiency of monolayer and polymer-brush-based DTC-functionalized MNPs (MNPs-DTC and MNPs- polyAEMA·DTC, respectively) were evaluated and compared by studying the effect of various factors on the percentage removal of HgII such as adsorbent amount, temperature, and contact time. Furthermore, the adsorption behavior of MNPs-DTC and MNPs-polyAEMA·DTC was analyzed by applying Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. In addition, the adsorption thermodynamics, as well as the adsorption kinetics, were also evaluated in detail. The higher surface functional group density of MNPs-polyAEMA·DTC led to superior remediation characteristics toward HgII ions than its monolayer analogue. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Hashmi F.,Kinnaird College for Women |
Pearce J.M.,Queens University
Sustainable Development | Year: 2011
Drinking arsenic-contaminated water leads to a series of health problems that has limited development for the largely poor rural people of Pakistan who are unable to afford bottled water, centralized treatment plants or expensive water filter systems. This paper reviews the available appropriate technologies for the removal of arsenic from drinking water to assist in just sustainable development in Pakistan. Several technologies were found to be both technically and economically viable, supporting the large-scale deployment of these small-scale, appropriate technologies. The economic viability determined in this study was based on both first costs and operating costs. The cost of implementing such technologies for an individual Pakistani family is made acceptable with the use of local materials, which the family may already own. For example, systems using sand and iron nails in the filters, and that are placed in plastic buckets that are already in common use in the villages, drive down the overall costs of the technology and put it in the reach of even the most destitute. This study found that complications from the variability of local supplies result in the need to identify the locally most appropriate solution from both a technical and economic standpoint. This review article should be helpful for any practitioner in determining the locally optimal solution for the removal of arsenic from drinking water in Pakistan. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
Fatima S.A.,Kinnaird College for Women |
Ilyas F.,Kinnaird College for Women
Nature Environment and Pollution Technology | Year: 2015
This research study explains the material flow of paper from households to containers and ultimately to landfills. Moreover, it shows different behavior of various households towards the consumption of different paper products and the way they reuse them. Sampling was carried out from households, kerbside containers and landfills where material flow of paper was studied. Percentage composition was calculated on different waste items including paper. Six major paper items were segregated namely glossy paper, cardboard, tissue paper, boxboard, office paper and newspaper. Moreover, proximate analysis was carried out to find out the values for fixed carbon, ash content, moisture content and volatile organic compounds (VOC's) for different paper items mentioned above. Material flow of paper from households to kerbside containers and then to landfills was observed. The results showed that waste paper from the households is of very fine quality and before reaching to the landfill site it is either sold, reused or recovered. Today in Pakistan, the act of recovering paper from the waste stream is carried out by the informal sector which if followed by the formal sector too can raise profits and economic development. © 2015, Technoscience Publications. All rights reserved.
Sabir S.,Kinnaird College for Women |
Younas H.,Kinnaird College for Women
MATEC Web of Conferences | Year: 2016
Insulin plays an important role in maintaining the blood glucose level of the body. The-cells of pancreas produce insulin in the form of precursor that is preproinsulin. The gene of preproinsulin provides an interesting system for addressing question related to molecular evolution. Recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to isolate and sequence the chromosomal genes coding for unique protein products. Although preproinsulin of various organism has been isolated and cloned, but there is no report from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) that is our major livestock. The genomic DNA of buffalo was isolated using Laura-Lee-Boodram method. The part of preproinsulin gene (596bp and 520bp) using BPPI-UPS and bpifulF as forward and BC1-C as reverse primer was amplified. Cloning of amplified fragments of gene were performed in PCR 2.1 vector. Positive clones were screened on the basis of blue white selection. The band obtained on 596bp and 520bp after colony PCR confirmed the successful cloning of preproinsulin gene in PCR 2.1 vector. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences 2016.