Sita Road, Pakistan
Sita Road, Pakistan

Kinnaird College for Women is a university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Founded by American missionaries under the British Raj, the school is now a semi-government institute recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. Wikipedia.


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Jawad A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Butt S.,Lahore Leads University | Butt S.,Kinnaird College for Women | Rani S.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2016

Warm inflationary universe models in the context of the generalized Chaplygin gas, the modified Chaplygin gas, and the generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas are being studied. The dissipative coefficient of the form Γ ∝ T, and the weak and the strong dissipative regimes are being considered. We use the quartic potential, λ∗ϕ44, which is ruled out by current data in cold inflation but in our models by analysis it is seen to be in agreement with the WMAP9 and the latest Planck data. In these scenarios, the power spectrum, the spectral index, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio are being examined in the slow-roll approximation. We show the dependence of the tensor–scalar ratio r on the spectral index ns and observe that the range of the tensor–scalar ratio is r< 0.05 in the generalized Chaplygin gas, r< 0.15 in the modified Chaplygin gas, and r< 0.12 in the generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas models. Our results are in agreement with recent observational data like WMAP9 and the latest Planck data. © 2016, The Author(s).


Firdous S.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories Complex | Ejaz N.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories Complex | Aman T.,Kinnaird College for Women | Khan N.,Kinnaird College for Women
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance | Year: 2012

A survey was conducted to assess the extent of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 contamination of export-quality rice. Five hundred and nineteen batches of rice (including white, brown and sella rice) from various exporters were analysed for aflatoxins using Mycosep column clean-up and quantification with high-performance liquid chromatography, during the year 2010. Mean concentrations for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) were 0.56 μg kg-1 and 0.03 μg kg-1 for brown rice, 0.49 μg kg-1 and 0.03 μg kg-1 for white rice and 0.73 μg kg-1 and 0.02 μg kg-1 for sella rice, with an overall positive (≥ the limit of detection of 0.1 μg kg-1 for AFB1 and AFG1; and 0.05 μg kg-1 for AFB2 and AFG2) incidence of 49%. Out of all analysed samples, only 1.9% was found positive for aflatoxin G1. Highly contaminated samples were found in the month of August, with findings for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) of 16.65 μg kg-1 and 2.64 μg kg-1, respectively. During the whole year, monitoring aflatoxin concentrations exhibited a distinct variation according to the climatic conditions, with relatively high levels during March, July and August, which could be related to favourable environmental conditions. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Farrukh A.,Lahore University of Management Sciences | Akram A.,University of Engineering and Technology Lahore | Ghaffar A.,University of Engineering and Technology Lahore | Hanif S.,TOBB University of Economics and Technology | And 3 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013

Highly efficient removal of mercury(II) ions (HgII) from water has been reported by employing polymer-brush-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Surface-initiated conventional radical polymerization (SI-cRP) was used to grow poly(2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride) (poly-AEMA·HCl) polymer chains on magnetite nanoparticles (Fe 3O4), followed by the transformation of pendant amino groups into dithiocarbamate (DTC) groups, which showed high chelating affinity toward HgII ions. This polymer-brush-based DTC-functionalized MNP (MNPs-polyAEMA·DTC) platform showed the complete removal of Hg II from aqueous solutions. The HgII ion removal capacity and efficiency of MNPs-polyAEMA·DTC were compared with its monolayer analogue, which was derived from the direct transformation of amino groups of (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized MNPs (MNPs-APTES) to DTC functional groups (MNPs-DTC). The surface chemical modifications and higher chelating functional group density, in the case of MNPs-polyAEMA·DTC, were ascertained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), physical property measurement system (PPMS), attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The HgII ion removal capacity and efficiency of monolayer and polymer-brush-based DTC-functionalized MNPs (MNPs-DTC and MNPs- polyAEMA·DTC, respectively) were evaluated and compared by studying the effect of various factors on the percentage removal of HgII such as adsorbent amount, temperature, and contact time. Furthermore, the adsorption behavior of MNPs-DTC and MNPs-polyAEMA·DTC was analyzed by applying Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. In addition, the adsorption thermodynamics, as well as the adsorption kinetics, were also evaluated in detail. The higher surface functional group density of MNPs-polyAEMA·DTC led to superior remediation characteristics toward HgII ions than its monolayer analogue. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Khan A.S.,Kinnaird College for Women | Chaudhry N.Y.,University of Punjab
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

This study contributes to the enhancement of on knowledge about behaviour of cucurbits with heavy metal i.e., Pb (NO3)2 and/or their combination with growth hormones (IAA). Effects of Pb and IAA were studied on flowering in Cucumis sativus L. and Momordica charantia L. There is very little information on the effects of heavy metals on the flowering in plants particularly in cucurbits; this in itself makes the issue of interest apart from the interaction of heavy metals with hormones. Plant under the stress of heavy metals can be treated with growth hormones to improve growth parameters, to avoid delay in flowering and likewise quality of fruit can be improved. Applied 400 mg/l IAA caused precocious flowering, increasing the number of flowers in both the plants. Lead caused significant delay in flowering, consequently leading to reduction in the number of pistillate and staminate flowers. However, when IAA was applied with Pb (NO3)2, there was less decrease in staminate and pistillate flowers, revealing the dominant effect of IAA. Current study reveals that inhibitory effects of heavy metals on flowering were partially restored by IAA applications.


Shelly S.Y.,Kinnaird College for Women | Mirza Z.B.,Kinnaird College for Women | Bashir S.,Kinnaird College for Women
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2011

The physico-chemical factors of water and biological processes determine the quality of water which in turn indicates the diversity of fauna and flora that the water would support. Pond areas of Mangla Dam harbored more of pollution sensitive species like Megalopterans, Ephemeropterans, Cyclopods, Cladocerans and some species of Odonates in both the summer and the winter seasons as compared to the tolerant species which were comparatively less in number than the sensitive species. Chashma Barrage on the other hand had more of pollution tolerant species and very less diversity and number of pollution sensitive species. The major pollution tolerant organisms include Gastropods, Bivalves, coleopterans, dipterans, hemipterans, cestods, turbellarians and hydrozoans. Small number of pollution sensitive species was also observed which mainly included the cyclopods and the cladocerans mainly in the winter season. Vertical migration was observed in the water column of the study areas in both the seasons from dawn to dusk. Hence, it was obvious that Mangla Dam pond areas had much better water quality for the survival of larger diversity of fauna and flora than the Chashma Barrage study area.


Hanif S.,Kinnaird College for Women | Shahzad A.,Kinnaird College for Women
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2014

The present research was conducted with an aim to develop such adsorbent system: polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles which can remove heavy metal and dye from water of different concentration. Synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for contaminated water purification has been one of the outcomes of application of rapidly growing field of Nanotechnology in Environmental Science. In the present study, the efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles for removal of Cr(VI) and dye (alizarin) from water solutions of known concentrations were evaluated. The nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Polymer-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles carrying functional groups on their surface were synthesized by different methods for permanent magnet-assisted removal of heavy metal (chromium) and dye (Alizarin Red S) from water. The characterization showed that synthesized nanoparticles were in the size range of 10-50 nm. The adsorption capacities of the Fe3O 4 using polyMETAC-coated particles for dye (Alizarin Red S) removal were 80-96% and chromium 62-91%. The chromium concentration was determined after magnetic separation using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and dye concentration was estimated with UV-visible spectrophotometer. Nanoparticles of polymer coated showed the highest removal capacity from water for metal and dye. The developed adsorbents had higher capacity for removal of heavy metal ions and dye. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014.


Sabir S.,Kinnaird College for Women | Younas H.,Kinnaird College for Women
MATEC Web of Conferences | Year: 2016

Insulin plays an important role in maintaining the blood glucose level of the body. The-cells of pancreas produce insulin in the form of precursor that is preproinsulin. The gene of preproinsulin provides an interesting system for addressing question related to molecular evolution. Recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to isolate and sequence the chromosomal genes coding for unique protein products. Although preproinsulin of various organism has been isolated and cloned, but there is no report from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) that is our major livestock. The genomic DNA of buffalo was isolated using Laura-Lee-Boodram method. The part of preproinsulin gene (596bp and 520bp) using BPPI-UPS and bpifulF as forward and BC1-C as reverse primer was amplified. Cloning of amplified fragments of gene were performed in PCR 2.1 vector. Positive clones were screened on the basis of blue white selection. The band obtained on 596bp and 520bp after colony PCR confirmed the successful cloning of preproinsulin gene in PCR 2.1 vector. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences 2016.


Habibullah S.N.,Kinnaird College for Women | Shan-E-fatima S.,Government College University Lahore
12th International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering, ICASP 2015 | Year: 2015

Maintenance of the construction equipment fleet being an indispensably important concern in megaprojects such as construction of bridges and dams, equipment reliability metrics such as failure-rates, availability of equipment, time between failures and time required for repair are of paramount interest for contractors and project managers. The availability of data on variables such as time to failure, repair-time and the like motivates the determination of appropriate probability models that fit the data with a high degree of accuracy and facilitate estimation of probabilities that may be valuable in project-planning. Estimation of parameters of the proposed model by efficient estimation procedures is one of the first steps in achieving a model that 'best' fits the data. Only very recently, a property of a particular class of continuous probability distributions that has been named 'self-inversion at unity' has begun to be utilized for obtaining modifications to well-known estimators so that the modified estimators are more efficient than their well-known counterparts. In this paper, we focus on the more general case that we call 'self-inversion at A', where A can be any arbitrary real number, and propose a modification to the formula of the sample mean on the basis of this property. By applying the newly proposed modified mean to a data-set pertaining to repair-times of construction equipment, we demonstrate the usefulness of this approach in achieving probability models that are likely to fit, with a higher degree of accuracy than that which is achievable through the utilization of the well-known estimators, reliability and maintenance-related data encountered in megaprojects undertaken by civil engineers as well as in a variety of other engineering endeavors.


Irshad S.,Kinnaird College for Women | Mirza Z.B.,Kinnaird College for Women
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

This paper investigates the ecological linkages of the bird species of selected riverine habitats of River Ravi including the livestock of the sample area. Livestock is a source of revenue generation through low cost milk and meat production for the local community through free grazing. The insects in the pastureland that are dislodged by the livestock movement, are eaten by Cattle egrets, Bank mynas and Black drongos. Bank mynas and Black drongos were estimated to consume insects approximately one sixth of their body weight per day. However Cattle egrets and Crested larks were found to consume insect biomass almost one third of their own body weight per day. The percentage of grasshoppers and beetles was found higher than other insects in the food of these birds. The quantity of eatable grass available in the habitat was linked to the extent of grasshoppers damage, that had direct affect on the milk and meat production from livestock of the area. The food plants, insects, birds, livestock, milk production and the economic benefits to the rural communities in these riverine habitats were found interlinked and interdependent. Copyright 2011 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Hashmi F.,Kinnaird College for Women | Pearce J.M.,Queen's University
Sustainable Development | Year: 2011

Drinking arsenic-contaminated water leads to a series of health problems that has limited development for the largely poor rural people of Pakistan who are unable to afford bottled water, centralized treatment plants or expensive water filter systems. This paper reviews the available appropriate technologies for the removal of arsenic from drinking water to assist in just sustainable development in Pakistan. Several technologies were found to be both technically and economically viable, supporting the large-scale deployment of these small-scale, appropriate technologies. The economic viability determined in this study was based on both first costs and operating costs. The cost of implementing such technologies for an individual Pakistani family is made acceptable with the use of local materials, which the family may already own. For example, systems using sand and iron nails in the filters, and that are placed in plastic buckets that are already in common use in the villages, drive down the overall costs of the technology and put it in the reach of even the most destitute. This study found that complications from the variability of local supplies result in the need to identify the locally most appropriate solution from both a technical and economic standpoint. This review article should be helpful for any practitioner in determining the locally optimal solution for the removal of arsenic from drinking water in Pakistan. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

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