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Nagoya-shi, Japan

Korenori Y.,Kagoshima University | Tanigawa S.,Kagoshima University | Kumamoto T.,Kagoshima University | Qin S.,Kagoshima University | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research

Scope: 6-Methylthiohexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC), one of the major bioactive ingredients in Japanese Wasabi, has revealed cytoprotective and cancer chemopreventive effects. This study aims to clarify the molecular mechanisms how 6-MTITC modulates nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelchlike ECH-associating protein 1 (Keap1) system in antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-mediated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) expression. Methods and results: HepG2 cells were treated with 6-MTITC with varying time and dose. NQO1, Nrf2, and Keap1 proteins were detected by Western blotting. ARE transactivation was detected by electrophilic mobility shift assay and reporter gene assay. Nuclear localization of Nrf2 was determined by immunocytochemistry assay. Ubiquitination of Nrf2 and Keap1 was detected using immunoprecipitation after treatment with MG132. Small interfering RNA was used to knockdown Nrf2 or Keap1. The results revealed that 6-MTITC modulated Nrf2/ARE pathway by stimulating Keap1 modification, and inhibiting Nrf2 ubiquitination and protein turnover. These actions finally increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation and ARE-binding activity. Moreover, silencing Nrf2 markedly reduced ARE-driven activity induced by 6-MTITC. Conclusion: 6-MTITC modulated ARE-driven NQO1 expression by stabilizing Nrf2 with enhanced Keap1 modification and decreased Nrf2 degradation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Chen J.,Course of Biological Science and Technology | Uto T.,Course of Biological Science and Technology | Tanigawa S.,Course of Biological Science and Technology | Yamada-Kato T.,Kinjirushi Co. | And 3 more authors.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient of wasabi [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsumura], which is a popular pungent spice of Japan. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory function and underlying genes targeted by 6-MSITC, gene expression profiling through DNA microarray was performed in mouse macrophages. Among 22,050 oligonucleotides, the expression levels of 406 genes were increased by ≥3-fold in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264 cells, 238 gene signals of which were attenuated by 6-MSITC (≥2-fold). Expression levels of 717 genes were decreased by ≥3-fold in LPS-activated cells, of which 336 gene signals were restored by 6-MSITC (≥2-fold). Utilizing group analysis, 206 genes affected by 6-MSITC with a ≥2-fold change were classified into 35 categories relating to biological processes (81), molecular functions (108) and signaling pathways (17). The genes were further categorized as 'defense, inflammatory response, cytokine activities and receptor activities' and some were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Ingenuity pathway analysis further revealed that wasabi 6-MSITC regulated the relevant networks of chemokines, interleukins and interferons to exert its anti-inflammatory function. Source

Okamoto T.,Mie University | Akita N.,Suzuka University of Medical Science | Nagai M.,Kinjirushi Co. | Hayashi T.,Mie Prefectural College of Nursing | Suzuki K.,Suzuka University of Medical Science
Journal of Natural Medicines

6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is an active compound in wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.), which is one of the most popular spices in Japan. 6-MSITC suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation, arachidonic- or adenosine diphosphateinduced platelet activation, and tumor cell proliferation. These data indicate that 6-MSITC has several biological activities involving anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, and anti-apoptosis properties. Endothelial cells (ECs) maintain vascular homeostasis and play crucial roles in crosstalk between blood coagulation and vascular inflammation. In this study, we determined the anti-coagulant and antiinflammatory effects of 6-MSITC on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 6-MSITC slightly reduced tissue factor expression, but did not alter von Willebrand factor release in activated HUVECs. 6-MSITC modulated the generation of activated protein C, which is essential for negative regulation of blood coagulation, on normal ECs. In addition, 6-MSITC reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-induced interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. 6-MSITC markedly attenuated TNFα-induced adhesion of human monoblast U937 cells to HUVECs and reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression in activated ECs. These results showed that 6-MSITC modulates EC function and suppresses cell adhesion. This study provides new insight into the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of 6-MSITC, suggesting that 6-MSITC has therapeutic potential as a treatment for vasculitis and vascular inflammation. © The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer Japan 2013. Source

Yamada-Kato T.,Kinjirushi Co. | Nagai M.,Kinjirushi Co. | Ohnishi M.,Chubu University | Yoshida K.,Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Technology
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

Wasabi is a plant of Japanese origin. It belongs to the family Brassicaceae and produces various isothiocyanates (ITCs). To clarify the type I allergies inhibited by wasabi ITCs, we investigated the inhibitory effect on chemical mediator release from dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA)-stimulated RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cells. Allyl ITC (AITC), sec-butyl ITC (s-BuITC), and 3-butenyl ITC (3-BuITC), which have 3 or 4 carbon chains, inhibited histamine release but did not inhibit the release of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) or cysteinyl LTs (CysLTs). 4-Pentenyl ITC (4-PeITC) and 5-hexenyl ITC (5-HeITC), which have 5 or 6 carbon chains and an unsaturated bond at the end, inhibited LTB4 release but did not inhibit the release of histamine or CysLTs. 6-Methylthiohexyl ITC (6-MTITC), 6-methylsulfinylhexyl ITC (6-MSITC), and 6-methylsulfonylhexyl ITC (6-MSFITC), which have a sulfur atom inserted at the end of a 6-carbon chain, inhibited the release of histamine, LTB4, and CysLTs and the elevation in intracellular Ca2+. These results suggest that wasabi ITCs inhibited type I allergies by inhibiting chemical mediator release and that the inhibitory effects on each chemical mediator were due to differences in the side chain structure of the wasabi ITCs. Source

Hou D.-X.,Hunan University | Hou D.-X.,Kagoshima University | Korenori Y.,Kagoshima University | Tanigawa S.,Kagoshima University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient present in wasabi, a popular pungent spice in Japan. Previous studies have revealed the cytoprotective and cancer chemopreventive effects of 6-MSITC. This study aims to clarify the molecular mechanisms by investigating the action of 6-MSITC on the Nrf2/Keap1 system. 6-MSITC up-regulated the expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by increasing the Nrf2 level. Treatment with 6-MSITC extended the half-life (t1/2) of Nrf2 protein from 11.5 to 35.2 min, approximately three times longer. Moreover, 6-MSITC suppressed the ubiquitination of Nrf2 but not Keap1. Alternatively, a modified Keap1 was observed in 6-MSITC-treated cells accompanying reduction of normal Keap1 protein. The results from cellular fractionation and immunocytochemistry assay revealed that Nrf2 was primarily accumulated in nucleus. EMSA and the reporter gene assay further demonstrated that 6-MSITC augmented Nrf2-ARE binding and transcription activity. Silencing Nrf2 using Nrf2 siRNA markedly reduced the Nrf2 level and ARE-driven activity under both baseline and 6-MSITC-induced conditions. Our data revealed that 6-MSITC enhanced Nrf2/ARE-driven NQO1 expression by stabilizing Nrf2 that was accomplished by modifying Keap1 with consequent inhibition of the ubiquitination and proteasomal turnover of Nrf2. The findings provide an insight into the mechanisms underlying 6-MSITC in cytoprotection and cancer chemoprevention. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

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