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Helle S.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Brodu B.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Davis B.,Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. | Guay D.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Roue L.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique
Corrosion Science | Year: 2011

Mechanically alloyed (Cu3.25Ni)100-xFex materials (x=0, 15 and 30wt.%) were evaluated as inert anodes for aluminium electrolysis in KF-AlF3 (700°C) electrolyte. For x=0, the cell voltage was unstable and high (5-6V) due to the formation of an insulting NiFx layer at the metal-oxide interface. For x=15 and 30, the formation of a Cu2O-rich external scale with a protective NiFe2O4-rich intermediate layer was favoured, resulting in a lower (∼4V) and more stable cell voltage. The purity of the produced Al was 98.96, 99.31 and 99.20wt.% for x=0, 15 and 30, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gavrilova E.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Goupil G.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Davis B.,Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. | Guay D.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Roue L.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique
Corrosion Science | Year: 2015

In order to prepare anode materials for testing for Al electrolysis, monophased Cu-Ni-Fe alloys were produced by high-energy ball milling with different Cu contents (65, 55 and 45wt%) and a Ni/Fe mass ratio fixed at 1.33. A Cu-free alloy (57Ni43Fe) was also evaluated for comparison. Their oxidation behavior was studied at 700°C under O2 atmosphere and in Al electrolysis conditions. Under both conditions, it is shown that the presence of CuO in the outer layer is critical for the formation of an inner protective layer of NiFe2O4 and depends critically on the Cu content of the alloy. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Huynh K.,Queens University | Napolitano K.,Queens University | Wang R.,Queens University | Jessop P.G.,Queens University | Davis B.R.,Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

The use of sodium borohydride as a means for hydrogen generation has focused on the base-stabilized hydrolysis reaction, while literature for the methanolysis of sodium borohydride remains scarce. Sodium borohydride methanolysis is an alternative for hydrogen production from sodium borohydride and has a number of advantages over hydrolysis reactions in terms of by-product handling. Previous studies have shown that the presence of water in methanol significantly retards the rate of hydrogen evolution from NaBH4. This article reports the production of hydrogen from NaBH4 using rigorously dried methanol. In addition, the solid-state structure of the methanolysis by-product is reported, which lends pertinent information for its hydrolysis for methanol recovery. Also reported is the solid-state structure of the hydrolysis by-product. Copyright © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Helle S.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Davis B.,Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. | Guay D.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Roue L.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2013

A (Cu-Ni-Fe+Fe2O3) compositewas prepared by ball milling and evaluated as an oxygen-evolving anode for aluminum electrolysis. The material was prepared by first milling elemental Cu, Ni and Fe powders to form a Cu(Ni,Fe) solid solution. Then, the milling operation was resumed for different periods of time (from 30 min to 4 h) in presence of a fixed amount of nanosized Fe2O3 particles to achieve the desired stoichiometry (Cu65Ni20Fe15) 98.6O1.4. After 4 h of milling, Fe2O 3 precipitates are found to be homogeneously dispersed in the Cu-Ni-Fe matrix. The powder was then heated at 1000°C and pressed to form an electrode for evaluation in low-temperature (700°C) KF-AlF3 electrolyte at an anode current density of 0.5 A cm-2 for 20 h. The cell voltage was stable at ca. 4.5 V and the Cu, Fe and Ni contamination of the produced Al and electrolyte were quite low, resulting in an estimated anode erosion rate of 1.2 cm year-1. This good corrosion resistance is attributed to the formation of a protective NiFe2O4-rich layer on the electrode during Al electrolysis, which is likely to be favored by the presence of the finely dispersed Fe2O3 precipitates acting as nucleation sites for the formation of NiFe2O4. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved. Source


Goupil G.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Helle S.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Davis B.,Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. | Guay D.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Roue L.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2013

A comparative study on the anodic behavior of Cu65Ni 20Fe15 and (Cu65Ni20Fe 15)98.6O1.4 materials during the electrolysis of aluminum was conducted. Both materials were prepared in powder form by ball milling and subsequently consolidated to form dense pellets that were used as anodes. The electrochemical characterization was performed at 700 C in a potassium cryolite-based electrolyte, and the composition-morphology of the oxide scales formed on both anodes were determined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. On Cu65Ni20Fe15, a thick (170 μm) and porous oxide scale is formed after 15 min of electrolysis that readily dissolves (or spalls) before a denser oxide layer is formed after a longer electrolysis time (1 and 5 h). In comparison, a thin (2 μm) and dense oxide layer mainly composed of NiFe2O4 is observed on a (Cu65Ni20Fe15)98.6O1.4 electrode after 15 min of electrolysis. The thickness of this oxide layer increases to 10 and 30 μm after 1 h and 5 h of electrolysis. However, the outward diffusion of Cu to form CuOx at the surface of the electrode is not totally hampered by the presence of NiFe2O4 and a porous Cu-depleted region is formed at the oxide/alloy interface. As a result, electrolyte penetration occurs in the scale, which favors the progressive formation of an iron fluoride layer at the oxide/alloy interface. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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