Time filter

Source Type

Cardona N.,Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. | MacKey P.J.,P.J. Mackey Technology Inc. | Coursol P.,Barrick Gold Corporation | Parada R.,Anglo American | Parra R.,University of Concepción
JOM | Year: 2012

The performance of pyrometallurgical slag cleaning furnaces at many primary copper smelters is dependent in part on the quality of the converter slag, commonly produced in the batch-wise Peirce Smith converter (PSC). In order to understand the impact of converter slag chemistry and at the same time help optimize the converter operation, thermodynamic modeling of molten slag (including any contained slag solid fractions) was carried out on slag produced at the Chagres smelter in Chile. Phase characterization studies on actual plant slag samples were also carried out. The results are provided in the present paper. This work is also considered as a case study example to illustrate the type of work that can be performed to fairly quickly diagnose the quality of converter slag and assess the overall condition of the converter operation. © 2012 TMS.


Helle S.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Brodu B.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Davis B.,Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. | Guay D.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Roue L.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique
Corrosion Science | Year: 2011

Mechanically alloyed (Cu3.25Ni)100-xFex materials (x=0, 15 and 30wt.%) were evaluated as inert anodes for aluminium electrolysis in KF-AlF3 (700°C) electrolyte. For x=0, the cell voltage was unstable and high (5-6V) due to the formation of an insulting NiFx layer at the metal-oxide interface. For x=15 and 30, the formation of a Cu2O-rich external scale with a protective NiFe2O4-rich intermediate layer was favoured, resulting in a lower (∼4V) and more stable cell voltage. The purity of the produced Al was 98.96, 99.31 and 99.20wt.% for x=0, 15 and 30, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Goupil G.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Helle S.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Davis B.,Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. | Guay D.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Roue L.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2013

A comparative study on the anodic behavior of Cu65Ni 20Fe15 and (Cu65Ni20Fe 15)98.6O1.4 materials during the electrolysis of aluminum was conducted. Both materials were prepared in powder form by ball milling and subsequently consolidated to form dense pellets that were used as anodes. The electrochemical characterization was performed at 700 C in a potassium cryolite-based electrolyte, and the composition-morphology of the oxide scales formed on both anodes were determined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. On Cu65Ni20Fe15, a thick (170 μm) and porous oxide scale is formed after 15 min of electrolysis that readily dissolves (or spalls) before a denser oxide layer is formed after a longer electrolysis time (1 and 5 h). In comparison, a thin (2 μm) and dense oxide layer mainly composed of NiFe2O4 is observed on a (Cu65Ni20Fe15)98.6O1.4 electrode after 15 min of electrolysis. The thickness of this oxide layer increases to 10 and 30 μm after 1 h and 5 h of electrolysis. However, the outward diffusion of Cu to form CuOx at the surface of the electrode is not totally hampered by the presence of NiFe2O4 and a porous Cu-depleted region is formed at the oxide/alloy interface. As a result, electrolyte penetration occurs in the scale, which favors the progressive formation of an iron fluoride layer at the oxide/alloy interface. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Huynh K.,Queen's University | Napolitano K.,Queen's University | Wang R.,Queen's University | Jessop P.G.,Queen's University | Davis B.R.,Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

The use of sodium borohydride as a means for hydrogen generation has focused on the base-stabilized hydrolysis reaction, while literature for the methanolysis of sodium borohydride remains scarce. Sodium borohydride methanolysis is an alternative for hydrogen production from sodium borohydride and has a number of advantages over hydrolysis reactions in terms of by-product handling. Previous studies have shown that the presence of water in methanol significantly retards the rate of hydrogen evolution from NaBH4. This article reports the production of hydrogen from NaBH4 using rigorously dried methanol. In addition, the solid-state structure of the methanolysis by-product is reported, which lends pertinent information for its hydrolysis for methanol recovery. Also reported is the solid-state structure of the hydrolysis by-product. Copyright © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Helle S.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Davis B.,Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. | Guay D.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Roue L.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2013

A (Cu-Ni-Fe+Fe2O3) compositewas prepared by ball milling and evaluated as an oxygen-evolving anode for aluminum electrolysis. The material was prepared by first milling elemental Cu, Ni and Fe powders to form a Cu(Ni,Fe) solid solution. Then, the milling operation was resumed for different periods of time (from 30 min to 4 h) in presence of a fixed amount of nanosized Fe2O3 particles to achieve the desired stoichiometry (Cu65Ni20Fe15) 98.6O1.4. After 4 h of milling, Fe2O 3 precipitates are found to be homogeneously dispersed in the Cu-Ni-Fe matrix. The powder was then heated at 1000°C and pressed to form an electrode for evaluation in low-temperature (700°C) KF-AlF3 electrolyte at an anode current density of 0.5 A cm-2 for 20 h. The cell voltage was stable at ca. 4.5 V and the Cu, Fe and Ni contamination of the produced Al and electrolyte were quite low, resulting in an estimated anode erosion rate of 1.2 cm year-1. This good corrosion resistance is attributed to the formation of a protective NiFe2O4-rich layer on the electrode during Al electrolysis, which is likely to be favored by the presence of the finely dispersed Fe2O3 precipitates acting as nucleation sites for the formation of NiFe2O4. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.


Helle S.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Pedron M.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Assouli B.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Davis B.,Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Corrosion Science | Year: 2010

CuxNi85-xFe15 (0≤x≤85wt.%) compounds were prepared by mechanical alloying. Monophased face centered cubic (fcc) Cu-Ni-Fe alloys were obtained after 10h of milling for x varying from 0 to 50, whereas bi-phased compounds fcc Cu-Ni-Fe+body centered cubic (bcc) Fe were formed with richer-Cu compounds. Their oxidation kinetics in air at 750°C is parabolic for all compositions and increases drastically for x>∼30. A stable anode for aluminium electrolysis in low-temperature (700°C) KF-AlF3 electrolyte was obtained for 65≤x≤85. However, a substantial increase of the Cu contamination in produced aluminium was observed for x>70. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Helle S.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Davis B.,Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. | Guay D.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Rou L.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2010

Cu92-xAlxNi5 Fe3 materials with x varying from 0 to 20 (wt %) were prepared by mechanical alloying. For x10, the as-milled Cu92-xAlxNi5Fe3 was made of an α -phase, whereas γ -Cu9Al4 was formed at x=20. Upon consolidation, a small amount of κ Ni/Fe-rich Al phase with a B2 structure is formed for x=6 and 10, whereas no new phase is formed in the other compounds. Aluminum electrolysis tests conducted at an anode current density of 0.5 A cm-2 for 20 h in a low temperature (700°C) KF- AlF3 electrolyte showed that the electrode stability and aluminum purity are strongly dependent on the alloy composition. The lowest values of cell voltage (4.1 V) and Cu contamination (0.8 wt %) were obtained for x=10 wt %. This relatively lower contamination is due to the formation of a dense and adherent CuAl2O4 oxide scale between the outermost Cu 2 O oxide layer and the substrate. In comparison, a hot-rolled C63000 commercially available alloy with the same composition but lower chemical/microstructural homogeneity gave a higher Cu contamination level (1.4 wt %). © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.


Helle S.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Tresse M.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Davis B.,Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. | Guay D.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Roue L.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2012

A series of compounds with the general formula (Cu 65Ni 20Fe 15) 100-xO x, with x 0.3, 1.4, 3.3 and 7.2 were prepared by high energy ball milling and evaluated as oxygen-evolving anodes for aluminum electrolysis. In a first step, elemental Cu, Ni and Fe powders were milled together to form a face-centered-cubic (fcc) phase (γ-phase). Then, the milling operation was resumed in presence of the desired amount of oxygen. Upon heat-treatment at 1000°C during the subsequent powder consolidation, the added oxygen reacted with Fe to form Fe 2O 3. Aluminum electrolyses conducted for 20 h in low-temperature (700°C) KF-AlF 3 electrolyte at an anode current density of 0.5 A cm -2 showed that the electrode stability and aluminum purity are strongly dependent on the amount of oxygen added. The best results were obtained for x = 1.4. In that case, the cell voltage was stable at ca. 4.0 V and the Cu, Fe and Ni contaminations of the produced Al and electrolyte were minimal, resulting in an anode erosion rate of 0.8 cm year -1. In this case, the size, dispersion and concentration of Fe 2O 3 precipitates in the consolidated powder were optimal to give rise to the formation of a protective NiFe 2O 4-rich layer. © 2012 The Electrochemical Society.


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: marketersmedia.com

MONTREAL, QC / ACCESSWIRE / March 2, 2017 / Manganese X Energy Corp. (TSX-V: MN) (FSE: 9SC2) (TRADEGATE: 9SC2) (OTC PINK: SNCGF) (the "Company") is pleased to announce it has entered into its next phase consisting of an innovative metallurgical project funded by the Company's recent $1.45 million oversubscribed financing. "This innovative metallurgical project is developing a process in order to produce a manganese concentrate to be utilized for production of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide which is also known as EMD. EMD is a high value manganese product which is utilized within various applications especially for lithium ion battery cathode material for electric vehicles. Manganese is the critical link in the lithium ion storage chain" stated Martin Kepman, CEO and Director of Manganese X Energy. "The reason we refer to it as innovative is that the Company is focused on producing a cost effective, environmentally friendly concentrate for the lithium ion battery market which is currently in high demand within the North American." In order to expedite our metallurgical project, Manganese X Energy has recently sent two batches of core samples from our Iron Ore Hill zone to SGS. This renowned Lakefield Ontario based laboratory has begun QemScan testing which is an acronym for "Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy". SGS will also undertake chemical analysis of the samples; this will enable the Company to measure in microns the various percentages of other minerals present on its property. We anticipate from SGS the QemScan test results within the next two weeks. With the commencement of QuemScan testing, Manganese X Energy's metallurgical team will begin to assess the viability of integrating and upgrading specific processes such as floatation, gravity, magnetic and electrostatic separations, as well as, ore sorting techniques to produce high grade manganese concentrate while separating other minerals efficiently. In addition, Manganese X Energy will be sending additional core samples from our Sharpe Farm and Moody Hill areas of our Houlton Woodstock Property in order to determine which mineralized zone of our three mineral bodies will be the most efficient and viable to process. In conjunction with the ongoing advancement of our QemScan and chemical analysis, the Company has requested proposals from several leading research firms to assist Manganese X Energy in investigating state of the art processes and technology procedures. The Company hopes to enhance and upgrade our manganese bearing mineral known as rhodochrosite into a viable concentrate for the North American EMD market. We anticipate receiving responses to our requests for proposals shortly. We will also contact various government agencies for financial assistance to augment our current program which includes a metallurgical concept study on Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (EMD) metallurgy processes. We have received from Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. (KPM) an initial process and test work review, as well as the cost portions of the Concept Study. "With this additional information, it will open many testing options and opportunities. We will be innovative and take the work forward" stated by Dr. Luisa Moreno, director of the Company. The objective of the Kingston Process Metallurgy concept study is to investigate all options to maximize the added value potential of the Company's Houlton Woodstock manganese property located in Carleton County, New Brunswick, Canada. Manganese X Energy Corp. will aggressively continue to explore the various opportunities leading to producing a manganese concentrate for the EMD North American market. The Company is pleased to announce that the Company has granted 500,000 incentive stock options to a consultant. The options are exercisable at $0.215 per option for a period of 1 year from the date of grant. The options are being issued under the terms of the Company's Stock Option Plans which were approved by shareholders at the Company's Annual General and Special Meeting on April 21, 2016. The Option Plan has been submitted, in the normal course to the TSX Venture Exchange for approval and no options can be exercised prior to the receipt of this approval Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. (KPM) was established in 2002 to provide process development and optimization, through contract research and development services to chemical, mining, and metallurgical industries. KPM's project portfolio is diverse but centers around integrating its experimental work with techno-economics to develop processes that are both financially and technically sound. Their team has the expertise, multidisciplinary skills, and fundamental knowledge to develop concepts and solve unique challenges. Manganese X Energy's mission is to acquire and advance high potential manganese prospects located in North America with the intent of supplying value added materials to the lithium ion battery and other alternative energy industries as well as the steel industry. In addition, our company is striving to achieve new methodologies emanating with environmentally friendly green/zero emissions and producing manganese at a lower competitive cost. For more information, visit the website at www.manganesexenergycorp.com. ON BEHALF OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. This news release contains "forward-looking information" including statements with respect to the future exploration performance of the Company. This forward-looking information involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of the Company to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements of the Company, expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. These risks, as well as others, are disclosed within the Company's filing on SEDAR, which investors are encouraged to review prior to any transaction involving the securities of the Company. Forward-looking information contained herein is provided as of the date of this news release and the Company disclaims any obligation, other than as required by law, to update any forward-looking information for any reason. There can be no assurance that forward-looking information will prove to be accurate and the reader is cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking information. MONTREAL, QC / ACCESSWIRE / March 2, 2017 / Manganese X Energy Corp. (TSX-V: MN) (FSE: 9SC2) (TRADEGATE: 9SC2) (OTC PINK: SNCGF) (the "Company") is pleased to announce it has entered into its next phase consisting of an innovative metallurgical project funded by the Company's recent $1.45 million oversubscribed financing. "This innovative metallurgical project is developing a process in order to produce a manganese concentrate to be utilized for production of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide which is also known as EMD. EMD is a high value manganese product which is utilized within various applications especially for lithium ion battery cathode material for electric vehicles. Manganese is the critical link in the lithium ion storage chain" stated Martin Kepman, CEO and Director of Manganese X Energy. "The reason we refer to it as innovative is that the Company is focused on producing a cost effective, environmentally friendly concentrate for the lithium ion battery market which is currently in high demand within the North American." In order to expedite our metallurgical project, Manganese X Energy has recently sent two batches of core samples from our Iron Ore Hill zone to SGS. This renowned Lakefield Ontario based laboratory has begun QemScan testing which is an acronym for "Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy". SGS will also undertake chemical analysis of the samples; this will enable the Company to measure in microns the various percentages of other minerals present on its property. We anticipate from SGS the QemScan test results within the next two weeks. With the commencement of QuemScan testing, Manganese X Energy's metallurgical team will begin to assess the viability of integrating and upgrading specific processes such as floatation, gravity, magnetic and electrostatic separations, as well as, ore sorting techniques to produce high grade manganese concentrate while separating other minerals efficiently. In addition, Manganese X Energy will be sending additional core samples from our Sharpe Farm and Moody Hill areas of our Houlton Woodstock Property in order to determine which mineralized zone of our three mineral bodies will be the most efficient and viable to process. In conjunction with the ongoing advancement of our QemScan and chemical analysis, the Company has requested proposals from several leading research firms to assist Manganese X Energy in investigating state of the art processes and technology procedures. The Company hopes to enhance and upgrade our manganese bearing mineral known as rhodochrosite into a viable concentrate for the North American EMD market. We anticipate receiving responses to our requests for proposals shortly. We will also contact various government agencies for financial assistance to augment our current program which includes a metallurgical concept study on Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (EMD) metallurgy processes. We have received from Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. (KPM) an initial process and test work review, as well as the cost portions of the Concept Study. "With this additional information, it will open many testing options and opportunities. We will be innovative and take the work forward" stated by Dr. Luisa Moreno, director of the Company. The objective of the Kingston Process Metallurgy concept study is to investigate all options to maximize the added value potential of the Company's Houlton Woodstock manganese property located in Carleton County, New Brunswick, Canada. Manganese X Energy Corp. will aggressively continue to explore the various opportunities leading to producing a manganese concentrate for the EMD North American market. The Company is pleased to announce that the Company has granted 500,000 incentive stock options to a consultant. The options are exercisable at $0.215 per option for a period of 1 year from the date of grant. The options are being issued under the terms of the Company's Stock Option Plans which were approved by shareholders at the Company's Annual General and Special Meeting on April 21, 2016. The Option Plan has been submitted, in the normal course to the TSX Venture Exchange for approval and no options can be exercised prior to the receipt of this approval Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. (KPM) was established in 2002 to provide process development and optimization, through contract research and development services to chemical, mining, and metallurgical industries. KPM's project portfolio is diverse but centers around integrating its experimental work with techno-economics to develop processes that are both financially and technically sound. Their team has the expertise, multidisciplinary skills, and fundamental knowledge to develop concepts and solve unique challenges. Manganese X Energy's mission is to acquire and advance high potential manganese prospects located in North America with the intent of supplying value added materials to the lithium ion battery and other alternative energy industries as well as the steel industry. In addition, our company is striving to achieve new methodologies emanating with environmentally friendly green/zero emissions and producing manganese at a lower competitive cost. For more information, visit the website at www.manganesexenergycorp.com. ON BEHALF OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. This news release contains "forward-looking information" including statements with respect to the future exploration performance of the Company. This forward-looking information involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of the Company to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements of the Company, expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. These risks, as well as others, are disclosed within the Company's filing on SEDAR, which investors are encouraged to review prior to any transaction involving the securities of the Company. Forward-looking information contained herein is provided as of the date of this news release and the Company disclaims any obligation, other than as required by law, to update any forward-looking information for any reason. There can be no assurance that forward-looking information will prove to be accurate and the reader is cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking information.


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.accesswire.com

MONTREAL, QC / ACCESSWIRE / March 2, 2017 / Manganese X Energy Corp. (TSX-V: MN) (FSE: 9SC2) (TRADEGATE: 9SC2) (OTC PINK: SNCGF) (the "Company") is pleased to announce it has entered into its next phase consisting of an innovative metallurgical project funded by the Company's recent $1.45 million oversubscribed financing. "This innovative metallurgical project is developing a process in order to produce a manganese concentrate to be utilized for production of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide which is also known as EMD. EMD is a high value manganese product which is utilized within various applications especially for lithium ion battery cathode material for electric vehicles. Manganese is the critical link in the lithium ion storage chain" stated Martin Kepman, CEO and Director of Manganese X Energy. "The reason we refer to it as innovative is that the Company is focused on producing a cost effective, environmentally friendly concentrate for the lithium ion battery market which is currently in high demand within the North American." In order to expedite our metallurgical project, Manganese X Energy has recently sent two batches of core samples from our Iron Ore Hill zone to SGS. This renowned Lakefield Ontario based laboratory has begun QemScan testing which is an acronym for "Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy". SGS will also undertake chemical analysis of the samples; this will enable the Company to measure in microns the various percentages of other minerals present on its property. We anticipate from SGS the QemScan test results within the next two weeks. With the commencement of QuemScan testing, Manganese X Energy's metallurgical team will begin to assess the viability of integrating and upgrading specific processes such as flo tation, gravity, magnetic and electrostatic separations, as well as, ore sorting techniques to produce high grade manganese concentrate while separating other minerals efficiently. In addition, Manganese X Energy will be sending additional core samples from our Sharpe Farm and Moody Hill areas of our Houlton Woodstock Property in order to determine which mineralized zone of our three mineral bodies will be the most efficient and viable to process. In conjunction with the ongoing advancement of our QemScan and chemical analysis, the Company has requested proposals from several leading research firms to assist Manganese X Energy in investigating state of the art processes and technology procedures. The Company hopes to enhance and upgrade our manganese bearing mineral known as rhodochrosite into a viable concentrate for the North American EMD market. We anticipate receiving responses to our requests for proposals shortly. We will also contact various government agencies for financial assistance to augment our current program which includes a metallurgical concept study on Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (EMD) metallurgy processes. We have received from Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. (KPM) an initial process and test work review, as well as the cost portions of the Concept Study. "With this additional information, it will open many testing options and opportunities. We will be innovative and take the work forward" stated by Dr. Luisa Moreno, director of the Company. The objective of the Kingston Process Metallurgy concept study is to investigate all options to maximize the added value potential of the Company's Houlton Woodstock manganese property located in Carleton County, New Brunswick, Canada. Manganese X Energy Corp. will aggressively continue to explore the various opportunities leading to producing a manganese concentrate for the EMD North American market. The Company is pleased to announce that the Company has granted 500,000 incentive stock options to a consultant. The options are exercisable at $0.215 per option for a period of 1 year from the date of grant. The options are being issued under the terms of the Company's Stock Option Plans which were approved by shareholders at the Company's Annual General and Special Meeting on April 21, 2016. The Option Plan has been submitted, in the normal course to the TSX Venture Exchange for approval and no options can be exercised prior to the receipt of this approval Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. (KPM) was established in 2002 to provide process development and optimization, through contract research and development services to chemical, mining, and metallurgical industries. KPM's project portfolio is diverse but centers around integrating its experimental work with techno-economics to develop processes that are both financially and technically sound. Their team has the expertise, multidisciplinary skills, and fundamental knowledge to develop concepts and solve unique challenges. Manganese X Energy's mission is to acquire and advance high potential manganese prospects located in North America with the intent of supplying value added materials to the lithium ion battery and other alternative energy industries as well as the steel industry. In addition, our company is striving to achieve new methodologies emanating with environmentally friendly green/zero emissions and producing manganese at a lower competitive cost. For more information, visit the website at www.manganesexenergycorp.com. ON BEHALF OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. This news release contains "forward-looking information" including statements with respect to the future exploration performance of the Company. This forward-looking information involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of the Company to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements of the Company, expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. These risks, as well as others, are disclosed within the Company's filing on SEDAR, which investors are encouraged to review prior to any transaction involving the securities of the Company. Forward-looking information contained herein is provided as of the date of this news release and the Company disclaims any obligation, other than as required by law, to update any forward-looking information for any reason. There can be no assurance that forward-looking information will prove to be accurate and the reader is cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking information.

Loading Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. collaborators
Loading Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. collaborators