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PubMed | Vancouver BC., Calgary AB., Winnipeg MB., Saskatoon SK. and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada : JOGC | Year: 2015

To review the evidence relating to obstetrical anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) with respect to diagnosis, repair techniques and outcomes. To formulate recommendations as to patient counselling regarding route of delivery for subsequent pregnancy after OASIS.Obstetrical care providers caring for women with OASIS have the option of repairing the anal sphincter using end-to-end or overlapping techniques. They may also be involved in counselling women with prior OASIS regarding the route of delivery for future pregnancies.The outcome measured is anal continence following primary OASIS repair and after subsequent childbirth.Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library in May 2011 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., anal canal, obstetrics, obstetric labour complication, pregnancy complication, treatment outcome, surgery, quality of life) and key words (obstetrical anal sphincter injur*, anus sphincter, anus injury, delivery, obstetrical care, surgery, suturing method, overlap, end-to-end, feces incontinence). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to September 2014. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1).Benefits from implementation of these guidelines include: improved diagnosis of OASIS, optimal functional outcomes following repair, and evidence-based counselling of women for future childbirth.


PubMed | Vancouver BC., Quebec QC., Winnipeg MB., Saskatoon SK. and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada : JOGC | Year: 2015

To provide guidelines for health care providers on the use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy and on the promotion of healthy sexuality.Guidance for Canadian practitioners on overall effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, contraindications, non-contraceptive benefits, side effects and risks, and initiation of cited contraceptive methods; family planning in the context of sexual health and general well-being; contraceptive counselling methods; and access to, and availability of, cited contraceptive methods in Canada.Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and The Cochrane Database from January 1994 to January 2015 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., contraception, sexuality, sexual health) and key words (e.g., contraception, family planning, hormonal contraception, emergency contraception). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English from January 1994 to January 2015. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to June 2015. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.The quality of the evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Chapter 1: Contraception in Canada Summary Statements 1. Canadian women spend a significant portion of their lives at risk of an unintended pregnancy. (II-2) 2. Effective contraceptive methods are underutilized in Canada, particularly among vulnerable populations. (II-2) 3. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, including contraceptive implants and intrauterine contraception (copper-releasing and levonorgestrel-releasing devices/systems), are the most effective reversible contraceptive methods and have the highest continuation rates. (II-1) 4. Canada currently does not collect reliable data to determine the use of contraceptive methods, abortion rates, and the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among reproductive-age women. (II-2) 5. A universal subsidy for contraceptive methods as provided by many of Canadas peer nations and a few Canadian provinces may produce health system cost-savings. (II-2) 6. Health Canada approval processes for contraceptives have been less efficient than those of other drug approval agencies and Health Canada processes for other classes of pharmaceuticals. (II-2) 7. It is feasible and safe for contraceptives and family planning services to be provided by appropriately trained allied health professionals such as midwives, registered nurses, nurse practitioners, and pharmacists. (II-2) Recommendations 1. Contraceptive counselling should include a discussion of typical use failure rates and the importance of using the contraceptive method consistently and correctly in order to avoid pregnancy. (II-2A) 2. Women seeking contraception should be counselled on the wide range of effective methods of contraception available, including long-acting reversible contraceptive methods (LARCs). LARCs are the most effective methods of reversible contraception, have high continuation rates, and should be considered when presenting contraceptive options to any woman of reproductive age. (II-2A) 3. Family planning counselling should include counselling on the decline of fertility associated with increasing female age. (III-A) 4. Health policy supporting a universal contraception subsidy and strategies to promote the uptake of highly effective methods as cost-saving measures that improve health and health equity should be considered by Canadian health decision makers. (III-B) 5. Canadian health jurisdictions should consider expanding the scope of practice of other trained professionals such as nurses, nurse practitioners, midwives, and pharmacists and promoting task-sharing in family planning. (II-2B) 6. The Canadian Community Health Survey should include adequate reproductive health indicators in order for health care providers and policy makers to make appropriate decisions regarding reproductive health policies and services in Canada. (III-B) 7. Health Canada processes and policies should be reviewed to ensure a wide range of modern contraceptive methods are available to Canadian women. (III-B) Chapter 2: Contraceptive Care and Access Summary Statements 8. Although there are many contraceptive options in Canada, only a narrow range of contraceptive methods are commonly used by those of reproductive age. (II-3) 9. Condom use decreases with longer relationship tenure and when the sexual partner is considered to be the main partner, likely due to a lower perceived risk of sexually transmitted infection in that relationship. Condom use may also decrease markedly as an unintended consequence when an effective non-barrier method, such as hormonal contraception or intrauterine contraception, is initiated. (II-3) 10. Family planning counselling provides a natural segue into screening for concerns about sexual function or intimate partner violence. (III) 11. Well-informed and well-motivated individuals who have developed skills to practise safer sex behaviours are more likely to use contraceptive and safer sex methods effectively and consistently. (II-2) Recommendations 8. Comprehensive family planning services, including abortion services, should be accessible to all Canadians regardless of geographic location. These services should be confidential, non-judgemental, and respectful of individuals privacy and cultural contexts. (III-A) 9. A contraceptive visit should include history taking, screening for contraindications, dispensing or prescribing a method of contraception, and exploring contraceptive choice and adherence in the broader context of the individuals sexual behaviour, reproductive health risk, social circumstances, and relevant belief systems. (III-B) 10. Health care providers should provide practical information on the wide range of contraceptive options and their potential non-contraceptive benefits and assist women and their partners in determining the best user-method fit. (III-B) 11. Health care providers should assist women and men in developing the skills necessary to negotiate the use of contraception and the correct and consistent use of a chosen method. (III-B) 12. Contraceptive care should include discussion and management of the risk of sexually transmitted infection, including appropriate recommendations for condom use and dual protection, STI screening, post-exposure prophylaxis, and Hepatitis B and human papillomavirus vaccination. (III-B) 13. Health care providers should emphasize the use of condoms not only for protection against sexually transmitted infection, but also as a back-up method when adherence to a hormonal contraceptive may be suboptimal. (I-A) 14. Health care providers should be aware of current media controversies in reproductive health and acquire relevant evidence-based information that can be briefly and directly communicated to their patients. (III-B) 15. Referral resources for intimate partner violence, sexually transmitted infections, sexual dysfunction, induced abortion services, and child protection services should be available to help clinicians provide contraceptive care in the broader context of womens health. (III-B) Chapter 3: Emergency Contraception Summary Statements 12. The copper intrauterine device is the most effective method of emergency contraception. (II-2) 13. A copper intrauterine device can be used for emergency contraception up to 7 days after unprotected intercourse provided that pregnancy has been ruled out and there are no other contraindications to its insertion. (II-2) 14. Levonorgestrel emergency contraception is effective up to 5 days (120 hours) after intercourse; its effectiveness decreases as the time between unprotected intercourse and ingestion increases. (II-2) 15. Ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception is more effective than levonorgestrel emergency contraception up to 5 days after unprotected intercourse. This difference in effectiveness is more pronounced as the time from unprotected intercourse increases, especially after 72 hours. (I) 16. Hormonal emergency contraception (levonorgestrel emergency contraception and ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception) is not effective if taken on the day of ovulation or after ovulation. (II-2) 17. Levonorgestrel emergency contraception may be less effective in women with a body mass index > 25 kg/m2 and ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception may be less effective in women with a body mass index > 35 kg/m2. However, hormonal emergency contraception may still retain some effectiveness regardless of a womans body weight or body mass index. (II-2) 18. Hormonal emergency contraception is associated with higher failure rates when women continue to have subsequent unprotected intercourse. (II-2) 19. Hormonal contraception can be initiated the day of or the day following the use of levonorgestrel emergency contraception, with back-up contraception used for the first 7 days. (III) 20. Hormonal contraception can be initiated 5 days following the use of ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception, with back-up contraception used for the first 14 days. (III) Recommendations 16. All emergency contraception should be initiated as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse. (II-2A) 17. Women should be informed that the copper intrauterine device (IUD) is the most effective method of emergency contraception and can be used by any woman with no contraindications to IUD use. (II-3A) 18.


PubMed | Vancouver BC., Calgary AB., Cochrane AB., Moncton NB. and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada : JOGC | Year: 2014

To review the risk of in utero infection through prenatal invasive procedures in women with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and/or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections.Fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library using appropriate controlled vocabulary (amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis, fetal and neonatal infection) and key words (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies from 2002 to 2012 published in English or French. (Studies from 1966 to 2002 were previously reviewed in Clinical Practice Guideline No. 123.) Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to February 2014. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Recommendations 1. For women infected with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and/or human immunodeficiency virus, the use of non-invasive methods of prenatal risk assessment is recommended, using tests with high sensitivity and low false-positive rates, such as serum screening combined (or not) with nuchal translucency, anatomic ultrasound, and non-invasive molecular prenatal testing. (III-B) 2. For women infected with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and/or human immunodeficiency virus undergoing an amniocentesis, every effort should be made to avoid inserting the needle through, or very close to, the placenta. (II-2B) 3. Little information is available on other prenatal diagnostic and therapeutic invasive procedures; the risks and benefits of such procedures should therefore be assessed prior to their use. (III-C) 4. The rate of neonatal hepatitis B infection attributable to amniocentesis ranges up to 1.4% in newborns of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. However, the rate of neonatal infection attributable to amniocentesis in newborns of mothers with a positive hepatitis B e antigen status may be as high as 16%. Although there is no statistically significant difference between the rates of infection in newborns exposed to amniocentesis or not exposed to amniocentesis in these two maternal populations, knowledge of the mothers hepatitis B e antigen status may be valuable in counselling women about the risks associated with amniocentesis. (II-2A) 5. Amniocentesis in women infected with hepatitis C does not appear to significantly increase the risk of vertical transmission, but women should be counselled that very few studies have properly addressed this possibility (II-2C). More research on this topic is recommended. (III-L) 6. Amniocentesis in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus on combination antiretroviral therapy does not appear to significantly increase the risk of vertical transmission, particularly if the viral load is undetectable, but women should be counselled that data on this issue is limited. (II-2B) 7. For women not on combined antiretroviral therapy, the risk of vertical transmission is increased by performing an amniocentesis. When possible, combined antiretroviral therapy should be initiated and the procedure postponed until the viral load is undetectable. Other case management should be individualized in consultation with infectious diseases specialists and obstetricians. (III-B).


PubMed | Vancouver BC., Quebec QC Co Chair ., Winnipeg MB., Saskatoon SK. and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada : JOGC | Year: 2016

To provide guidelines for health care providers on the use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy and on the promotion of healthy sexuality.Overall efficacy of cited contraceptive methods, assessing reduction in pregnancy rate, safety, ease of use, and side effects; the effect of cited contraceptive methods on sexual health and general well-being; and the relative cost and availability of cited contraceptive methods in Canada.Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and The Cochrane Database from January 1994 to January 2015 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., contraception, sexuality, sexual health) and key words (e.g., contraception, family planning, hormonal contraception, emergency contraception). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English from January 1994 to January 2015. Searches were updated on a regular basis in incorporated in the guideline to June 2015. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.The quality of the evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table1). CHAPTER 8: PROGESTIN-ONLY CONTRACEPTION: Summary Statements Recommendations.


PubMed | Vancouver BC., Quebec QC., Winnipeg MB., Saskatoon SK. and 7 more.
Type: Consensus Development Conference | Journal: Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada : JOGC | Year: 2015

To provide guidelines for health care providers on the use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy and on the promotion of healthy sexuality.Guidance for Canadian practitioners on overall effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, contraindications, non-contraceptive benefits, side effects and risks, and initiation of cited contraceptive methods; family planning in the context of sexual health and general well-being; contraceptive counselling methods; and access to, and availability of, cited contraceptive methods in Canada.Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and The Cochrane Database from January 1994 to January 2015 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., contraception, sexuality, sexual health) and key words (e.g., contraception, family planning, hormonal contraception, emergency contraception). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English from January 1994 to January 2015. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to June 2015. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.The quality of the evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Chapter 1: Contraception in Canada Summary Statements 1. Canadian women spend a significant portion of their lives at risk of an unintended pregnancy. (II-2) 2. Effective contraceptive methods are underutilized in Canada, particularly among vulnerable populations. (II-2) 3. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, including contraceptive implants and intrauterine contraception (copper-releasing and levonorgestrel-releasing devices/systems), are the most effective reversible contraceptive methods and have the highest continuation rates. (II-1) 4. Canada currently does not collect reliable data to determine the use of contraceptive methods, abortion rates, and the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among reproductive-age women. (II-2) 5. A universal subsidy for contraceptive methods as provided by many of Canadas peer nations and a few Canadian provinces may produce health system cost-savings. (II-2) 6. Health Canada approval processes for contraceptives have been less efficient than those of other drug approval agencies and Health Canada processes for other classes of pharmaceuticals. (II-2) 7. It is feasible and safe for contraceptives and family planning services to be provided by appropriately trained allied health professionals such as midwives, registered nurses, nurse practitioners, and pharmacists. (II-2) Recommendations 1. Contraceptive counselling should include a discussion of typical use failure rates and the importance of using the contraceptive method consistently and correctly in order to avoid pregnancy. (II-2A) 2. Women seeking contraception should be counselled on the wide range of effective methods of contraception available, including long-acting reversible contraceptive methods (LARCs). LARCs are the most effective methods of reversible contraception, have high continuation rates, and should be considered when presenting contraceptive options to any woman of reproductive age. (II-2A) 3. Family planning counselling should include counselling on the decline of fertility associated with increasing female age. (III-A) 4. Health policy supporting a universal contraception subsidy and strategies to promote the uptake of highly effective methods as cost-saving measures that improve health and health equity should be considered by Canadian health decision makers. (III-B) 5. Canadian health jurisdictions should consider expanding the scope of practice of other trained professionals such as nurses, nurse practitioners, midwives, and pharmacists and promoting task-sharing in family planning. (II-2B) 6. The Canadian Community Health Survey should include adequate reproductive health indicators in order for health care providers and policy makers to make appropriate decisions regarding reproductive health policies and services in Canada. (III-B) 7. Health Canada processes and policies should be reviewed to ensure a wide range of modern contraceptive methods are available to Canadian women. (III-B) Chapter 2: Contraceptive Care and Access Summary Statements 8. Although there are many contraceptive options in Canada, only a narrow range of contraceptive methods are commonly used by those of reproductive age. (II-3) 9. Condom use decreases with longer relationship tenure and when the sexual partner is considered to be the main partner, likely due to a lower perceived risk of sexually transmitted infection in that relationship. Condom use may also decrease markedly as an unintended consequence when an effective non-barrier method, such as hormonal contraception or intrauterine contraception, is initiated. (II-3) 10. Family planning counselling provides a natural segue into screening for concerns about sexual function or intimate partner violence. (III) 11. Well-informed and well-motivated individuals who have developed skills to practise safer sex behaviours are more likely to use contraceptive and safer sex methods effectively and consistently. (II-2) Recommendations 8. Comprehensive family planning services, including abortion services, should be accessible to all Canadians regardless of geographic location. These services should be confidential, non-judgemental, and respectful of individuals privacy and cultural contexts. (III-A) 9. A contraceptive visit should include history taking, screening for contraindications, dispensing or prescribing a method of contraception, and exploring contraceptive choice and adherence in the broader context of the individuals sexual behaviour, reproductive health risk, social circumstances, and relevant belief systems. (III-B) 10. Health care providers should provide practical information on the wide range of contraceptive options and their potential non-contraceptive benefits and assist women and their partners in determining the best user-method fit. (III-B) 11. Health care providers should assist women and men in developing the skills necessary to negotiate the use of contraception and the correct and consistent use of a chosen method. (III-B) 12. Contraceptive care should include discussion and management of the risk of sexually transmitted infection, including appropriate recommendations for condom use and dual protection, STI screening, post-exposure prophylaxis, and Hepatitis B and human papillomavirus vaccination. (III-B) 13. Health care providers should emphasize the use of condoms not only for protection against sexually transmitted infection, but also as a back-up method when adherence to a hormonal contraceptive may be suboptimal. (I-A) 14. Health care providers should be aware of current media controversies in reproductive health and acquire relevant evidence-based information that can be briefly and directly communicated to their patients. (III-B) 15. Referral resources for intimate partner violence, sexually transmitted infections, sexual dysfunction, induced abortion services, and child protection services should be available to help clinicians provide contraceptive care in the broader context of womens health. (III-B) Chapter 3: Emergency Contraception Summary Statements 12. The copper intrauterine device is the most effective method of emergency contraception. (II-2) 13. A copper intrauterine device can be used for emergency contraception up to 7 days after unprotected intercourse provided that pregnancy has been ruled out and there are no other contraindications to its insertion. (II-2) 14. Levonorgestrel emergency contraception is effective up to 5 days (120 hours) after intercourse; its effectiveness decreases as the time between unprotected intercourse and ingestion increases. (II-2) 15. Ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception is more effective than levonorgestrel emergency contraception up to 5 days after unprotected intercourse. This difference in effectiveness is more pronounced as the time from unprotected intercourse increases, especially after 72 hours. (I) 16. Hormonal emergency contraception (levonorgestrel emergency contraception and ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception) is not effective if taken on the day of ovulation or after ovulation. (II-2) 17. Levonorgestrel emergency contraception may be less effective in women with a body mass index > 25 kg/m2 and ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception may be less effective in women with a body mass index > 35 kg/m2. However, hormonal emergency contraception may still retain some effectiveness regardless of a womans body weight or body mass index. (II-2) 18. Hormonal emergency contraception is associated with higher failure rates when women continue to have subsequent unprotected intercourse. (II-2) 19. Hormonal contraception can be initiated the day of or the day following the use of levonorgestrel emergency contraception, with back-up contraception used for the first 7 days. (III) 20. Hormonal contraception can be initiated 5 days following the use of ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception, with back-up contraception used for the first 14 days. (III) Recommendations 16. All emergency contraception should be initiated as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse. (II-2A) 17. Women should be informed that the copper intrauterine device (IUD) is the most effective method of emergency contraception and can be used by any woman with no contraindications to IUD use. (II-3A) 18.


Davies G.A.,Kingston ON. | Maxwell C.,Kingston ON. | McLeod L.,Kingston ON. | Gagnon R.,Kingston ON. | And 19 more authors.
Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstétrique et gynécologie du Canada : JOGC | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence and provide recommendations for the counselling and management of obese parturients. OUTCOMES: Outcomes evaluated include the impact of maternal obesity on the provision of antenatal and intrapartum care, maternal morbidity and mortality, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. EVIDENCE: Literature was retrieved through searches of Statistics Canada, Medline, and The Cochrane Library on the impact of obesity in pregnancy on antepartum and intrapartum care, maternal morbidity and mortality, obstetrical anaesthesia, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to April 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. VALUES: The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Maternal Fetal Medicine and Clinical Practice Obstetric Committees of the SOGC under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. BENEFITS, HARMS, AND COSTS: Implementation of the recommendations in this guideline should increase recognition of the issues clinicians need to be aware of when managing obese women in pregnancy, improve communication and consultation amongst the obstetrical care team, and encourage federal and provincial agencies to educate Canadians about the values of entering pregnancy with as healthy a weight as possible. RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Periodic health examinations and other appointments for gynaecologic care prior to pregnancy offer ideal opportunities to raise the issue of weight loss before conception. Women should be encouraged to enter pregnancy with a BMI < 30 kg/m(2), and ideally < 25 kg/m(2). (III-B). 2. BMI should be calculated from pre-pregnancy height and weight. Those with a pre-pregnancy BMI > 30 kg/m(2) are considered obese. This information can be helpful in counselling women about pregnancy risks associated with obesity. (II-2B). 3. Obese pregnant women should receive counselling about weight gain, nutrition, and food choices. (II-2B). 4. Obese women should be advised that they are at risk for medical complications such as cardiac disease, pulmonary disease, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, and obstructive sleep apnea. Regular exercise during pregnancy may help to reduce some of these risks. (II-2B). 5. Obese women should be advised that their fetus is at an increased risk of congenital abnormalities, and appropriate screening should be done. (II-2B). 6. Obstetric care providers should take BMI into consideration when arranging for fetal anatomic assessment in the second trimester. Anatomic assessment at 20 to 22 weeks may be a better choice for the obese pregnant patient. (II-2B). 7. Obese pregnant women have an increased risk of Caesarean section, and the success of vaginal birth after Caesarean section is decreased. (II-2B). 8. Antenatal consultation with an anaesthesiologist should be considered to review analgesic options and to ensure a plan is in place should a regional anaesthetic be chosen. (III-B). 9. The risk of venous thromboembolism for each obese woman should be evaluated. In some clinical situations, consideration for thromboprophylaxis should be individualized. (III-B).


PubMed | Kingston ON.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada : JOGC | Year: 2010

To review the evidence and provide recommendations for the counselling and management of obese parturients.Outcomes evaluated include the impact of maternal obesity on the provision of antenatal and intrapartum care, maternal morbidity and mortality, and perinatal morbidity and mortality.Literature was retrieved through searches of Statistics Canada, Medline, and The Cochrane Library on the impact of obesity in pregnancy on antepartum and intrapartum care, maternal morbidity and mortality, obstetrical anaesthesia, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to April 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Maternal Fetal Medicine and Clinical Practice Obstetric Committees of the SOGC under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care.Implementation of the recommendations in this guideline should increase recognition of the issues clinicians need to be aware of when managing obese women in pregnancy, improve communication and consultation amongst the obstetrical care team, and encourage federal and provincial agencies to educate Canadians about the values of entering pregnancy with as healthy a weight as possible.1. Periodic health examinations and other appointments for gynaecologic care prior to pregnancy offer ideal opportunities to raise the issue of weight loss before conception. Women should be encouraged to enter pregnancy with a BMI < 30 kg/m(2), and ideally < 25 kg/m(2). (III-B). 2. BMI should be calculated from pre-pregnancy height and weight. Those with a pre-pregnancy BMI > 30 kg/m(2) are considered obese. This information can be helpful in counselling women about pregnancy risks associated with obesity. (II-2B). 3. Obese pregnant women should receive counselling about weight gain, nutrition, and food choices. (II-2B). 4. Obese women should be advised that they are at risk for medical complications such as cardiac disease, pulmonary disease, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, and obstructive sleep apnea. Regular exercise during pregnancy may help to reduce some of these risks. (II-2B). 5. Obese women should be advised that their fetus is at an increased risk of congenital abnormalities, and appropriate screening should be done. (II-2B). 6. Obstetric care providers should take BMI into consideration when arranging for fetal anatomic assessment in the second trimester. Anatomic assessment at 20 to 22 weeks may be a better choice for the obese pregnant patient. (II-2B). 7. Obese pregnant women have an increased risk of Caesarean section, and the success of vaginal birth after Caesarean section is decreased. (II-2B). 8. Antenatal consultation with an anaesthesiologist should be considered to review analgesic options and to ensure a plan is in place should a regional anaesthetic be chosen. (III-B). 9. The risk of venous thromboembolism for each obese woman should be evaluated. In some clinical situations, consideration for thromboprophylaxis should be individualized. (III-B).

Loading Kingston ON. collaborators
Loading Kingston ON. collaborators