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Kingston upon Thames, United Kingdom

Fernandes R.,Kingston Hospital
BMJ Case Reports | Year: 2010

The authors present the case of a middle-aged woman diagnosed with lobar carcinoma in situ in her right breast. She eventually underwent a mastectomy and reconstruction. Histology revealed grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and she was commenced on adjuvant letrozole. The following year a MRI scan revealed she had developed spinal metastases and CT confirmed the presence of liver and lung metastases. She presented with a 5-month history of tongue weakness and difficulty manipulating food to the back of her mouth. On examination, there was marked right-sided hemiatrophy of the tongue with deviation of the tongue to the right side upon protrusion. MRI demonstrated ill-defined enhancing material close to the intracranial opening of the right hypoglossal canal. The patient was referred for consideration of radiotherapy. Due to the comorbidities of the patient, she was not a candidate for neurosurgical intervention. Source


Fernandes R.,Kingston Hospital
BMJ case reports | Year: 2010

The authors present the case of a middle-aged woman diagnosed with lobar carcinoma in situ in her right breast. She eventually underwent a mastectomy and reconstruction. Histology revealed grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and she was commenced on adjuvant letrozole. The following year a MRI scan revealed she had developed spinal metastases and CT confirmed the presence of liver and lung metastases. She presented with a 5-month history of tongue weakness and difficulty manipulating food to the back of her mouth. On examination, there was marked right-sided hemiatrophy of the tongue with deviation of the tongue to the right side upon protrusion. MRI demonstrated ill-defined enhancing material close to the intracranial opening of the right hypoglossal canal. The patient was referred for consideration of radiotherapy. Due to the comorbidities of the patient, she was not a candidate for neurosurgical intervention. Source


Calder J.D.,Basingstoke and North Hampshire Hospitals | Calder J.D.,Imperial College London | Sexton S.A.,Kingston Hospital | Pearce C.J.,Basingstoke and North Hampshire Hospitals
American Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Posterior ankle impingement syndrome (PAIS) was first described in ballet dancers but is increasingly being diagnosed in other sports. Operative treatment may be indicated when nonoperative measures have failed. Traditionally, operative treatment has involved an open approach; more recently, posterior ankle arthroscopy has been employed. Purpose: This study was conducted to describe the factors that influence return to play in professional athletes after posterior ankle arthroscopy for posterior ankle impingement syndrome. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence 4. Methods: A consecutive series of 28 elite professional soccer players who had clinically and radiologically diagnosed posterior ankle impingement syndrome that failed to respond to nonoperative treatment underwent posterior ankle arthroscopy for bony or soft tissue posterior ankle impingement syndrome over 5 years. Results: Of the 28 players, 27 were available for follow-up. Five had a diagnosis of soft tissue impingement and underwent debridement with flexor hallucis longus release, 13 had a symptomatic os trigonum that was excised arthroscopically, and 9 had removal of a bony avulsion fragment from the posterior ankle ligament complex. The mean length of time to return to training postoperatively was 34 days and return to playing was 41 days (range, 29-72 days). The duration of symptoms before surgery and excision of bony impingement were significantly correlated with the time to return to training and playing. There were no major complications and no reoperations at an average of 23 months of follow-up (range, 15-49 months). Conclusion: Posterior ankle arthroscopy is safe and effective in the treatment of posterior ankle impingement syndrome in the elite soccer player, with return to training expected at an average of 5 weeks. Source


Harrison S.C.W.,Pinderfields General Hospital | Lawrence W.T.,Eastbourne District General Hospital | Morley R.,Kingston Hospital | Pearce I.,Royal Infirmary | Taylor J.,Pinderfields General Hospital
BJU International | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE: To report the British Association of Urological Surgeons' guidelines on the indications for, safe insertion of, and subsequent care for suprapubic catheters. METHODS A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify the evidence base. This was reviewed by a guideline development group (GDG), who then drew up the recommendations. Where there was no supporting evidence expert opinion of the GDG and a wider body of consultees was used. RESULTS Suprapubic catheterisation is widely used, and generally considered a safe procedure. There is however a small risk of serious complications. Whilst the evidence base is small, the GDG has produced a consensus statement on SPC use with the aim of minimising risks and establishing best practice (Table 1). It should be of relevance to all those involved in the insertion and care of suprapubic catheters. Given the paucity of evidence, areas for future research and development are also highlighted. This review has been commissioned and approved by BAUS and the Section of Female, Neurological and Urodynamic Urology. Summary of recommendations for suprapubic catheters (SPCs) practice General considerations • Clinicians who are involved in the management of patients with long-term catheters should consider in each case whether an SPC would offer advantages to the patient over the use of a urethral catheter • Patients in whom an SPC is felt to be appropriate should have access to an efficient and expert service for SPC insertion • Patients who are undergoing SPC placement either as an isolated or as a combined procedure should undergo an appropriate consent procedure with best practice including the provision of both verbal and written information The suprapubic catheterization procedure • If appropriate expertise for SPC insertion is not available at a particular time, suprapubic aspiration of urine using a needle of up to 21 gauge can be used as a means of temporarily relieving the patient's symptoms (LE3) • A general or regional anaesthetic should be used if the bladder cannot be comfortably filled with at least 300 mL of fluid and in spinal cord injury patients with an injury level of T6 or above (LE3) • The use of antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients where the urine is likely to be colonized with bacteria despite there being a lack of published data addressing this issue (LE3) • The different catheter insertion techniques and kits have not been compared in adequate clinical trials; the choice of technique is therefore a matter of individual preference. All of the closed (abdominal puncture) techniques run the risk of injury to intra-abdominal organs and the operator must have received training that allows the level of risk to be appreciated (LE3) • Ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen may be used as an adjunct to SPC insertion. However, the practitioner involved must have appropriate training and experience. Ultrasonography should only be used to look for interposing bowel loops along the planned catheter track by individuals who have received specific training and are experienced in this task. (LE3) • In the patient with a readily palpable bladder and no history of lower abdominal surgery, it is considered reasonable to insert a SPC using a closed technique providing that urine can be easily aspirated from the bladder using a needle passed along the planned catheter track (LE3) • In the patient in whom there is no history of lower abdominal surgery but where the distended (over 300 mL) bladder cannot be palpated because of obesity, it is considered that blind insertion should not be undertaken. In such circumstances, ultrasonography may be used to identify the distended bladder or cystoscopy may be used to ensure that an aspirating needle on the planned catheter track is entering the bladder at an appropriate point on the anterior bladder wall (LE3) • In the patient with either a history of lower abdominal surgery or a bladder that cannot be adequately distended, the SPC should either be inserted using an open technique or with the adjunct of imaging that can reliably exclude the presence of bowel loops on the intended catheter track. An open procedure must be performed in a manner that will reliably identify the bladder and allow mobilization of any interposing intestine away from the catheter track. Imaging to support a closed procedure would include the use of ultrasonography in skilled hands (see above) or CT scanning (LE3) Postoperative complications • Patients, carers and clinical staff must be made aware that urgent medical attention is needed if there are symptoms present that might suggest the presence of a catheter insertion-related visceral injury. Symptoms would include the persistence or worsening of lower abdominal pain or pain that is spreading away from the catheter insertion site (LE3) • Written instructions covering contact details and indications for seeking medical assistance should be given to patients and carers immediately after catheter insertion (LE3) Long-term SPC management • The use of a catheter valve as an alternative to continuous free drainage should always be considered where the bladder is known to provide safe urinary storage • The patient should have prompt and easy access to catheter change services and be offered the option of either them or their immediate carers being taught to change the catheter • Immediate access to a urology unit should be provided in the event of a failed catheter change • Antibiotic administration is indicated where there is evidence of cellulitis in the catheter site area or where there is evidence of symptomatic urinary tract infection (LE3) • Systemic antibiotics should not be used to treat uncomplicated pericatheter discharge or asymptomatic bacteruria (LE3) • Regular catheter bypassing or blockage should prompt referral to the local urology department for further investigation and management • Cystoscopy should be undertaken if repeated catheter blockages are occurring CONCLUSIONS It is hoped that these guidelines will assist in minimising morbidity associated with SPC usage. © 2010 BJU International. Source


Nagendran M.,University of Oxford | Maruthappua M.,University of Oxford | Sugand K.,Kingston Hospital
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery | Year: 2011

A best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether double lung transplantation should be performed with or without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in order to improve postoperative clinical outcomes. Altogether 386 papers were found using the reported search, of which 14 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. All 14 papers assessed a range of postoperative outcomes and broadly speaking, six papers found significantly worse outcomes with CPB use, six found no difference and two found a mixture of both depending on the specific outcomes assessed. Dalibon et al. wJ Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2006;20:668-672x found that mortality was significantly worse in the CPB group at 48 h, one month and one year wPs0.001, odds ratio (OR)s246.1; Ps0.083, ORs2.6; Ps0.001, ORs5.3, respectivelyx. Other papers revealed poor outcomes in the CPB group in a range of measures including diffuse alveolar damage (Ps0.009), chest radiograph infiltrate score (Ps0.005), longer intubation time (Ps0.002), longer intensive care unit stay (Ps0.05), and greater incidence of pulmonary reimplantation response (Ps0.03). However, Myles et al. wJ Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1997;11:177-183x found that only acute postoperative outcomes were significantly worse in their CPB group (P-0.001); medium- and long-term survival outcomes were not significantly different (Ps0.055). de Boer et al. wTransplantation 2002;73:1621-1627x even found that there was an improved one-year survival rate with CPB use (ORs0.25, Ps0.038) and that the number of human leukocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR) mismatches influenced this effect. Those papers suggesting no deleterious effects of CPB generally measured similar postoperative outcomes to those mentioned above, with one study also assessing incidence of primary graft failure, which was not significantly different (Ps0.37). We conclude that CPB should continue to be used where clinically indicated for a specific reason (for example, where there is pulmonary hypertension or a requirement for concomitant cardiac repair). However, given that the evidence for using CPB for all elective cases is relatively weak, and the fact that there are strong arguments in the literature for both methods, either approach would be clinically acceptable. © 2011 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved. Source

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