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Shogbon A.O.,Mercer University | Levy S.B.,Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center | Levy S.B.,Long Island University
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy | Year: 2010

Purpose. The current evidence on intensive glycemic control in the inpatient and outpatient settings and its implications to practice are reviewed. Summary. Poor glycemic control in patients with diabetes is associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications. Various clinical trials involving patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have revealed the benefits of intensive glycemic control in delaying the onset and progression of microvascular complications of diabetes. However, while long-term epidemiologic trials and a meta-analysis have shown a benefit of intensive glycemic control in reducing the incidence of macrovascular complications, recent clinical trials have not found similar benefits. The American Diabetes Association (ADA), American College of Endocrinology (ACE), and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommend intensive control of glycosylated hemoglobin and plasma glucose at specified goals. Hyperglycemia in the inpatient setting is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. ACE and ADA recommend the use of an i.v. insulin infusion in critically ill inpatients with hyperglycemia. In noncritically ill inpatients, basal and bolus doses of insulin are recommended. The use of sliding-scale insulin as the sole therapy for inpatient hyperglycemia is discouraged. However, caution must be exercised to ensure a balance between controlling hyperglycemia and reducing the risk of hypoglycemia. Conclusion. While intensive glycemic control is known to prevent or delay the occurrence of microvascular complications of diabetes, macrovascular benefits are still uncertain. Current evidence suggests that intensive glycemic control should be initiated as soon as possible after diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes in order to maximize potential long-term macrovascular benefits. Inpatient hyperglycemia should be managed appropriately to reduce morbidity and mortality, with great care taken to avoid and appropriately treat hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2010, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

Fung H.B.,James ters Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Monteagudo-Chu M.O.,Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center
American Journal Geriatric Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2010

Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a frequent cause of hospitalization and death among the elderly. Objective: This article reviews information on CAP among the elderly, including age-related changes, predisposing risk factors, causes, treatment strategies, and prevention. Methods: Searches of MEDLINE (January 1990-November 2009), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (January 1990-November 2009), and Google Scholar were conducted using the terms community-acquired pneumonia, pneumonia, treatment guidelines, and elderly. Additional publications were found by searching the reference lists of the identified articles. Studies that reported diagnostic criteria as well as the treatment outcomes achieved in adult patients with CAP were selected for this review. Results: Three practice guidelines, 5 reviews, and 43 studies on CAP in the elderly were identified in the literature search. Based on those publications, risk factors that predispose the elderly to pneumonia include comorbid conditions, poor functional and nutritional status, consumption of alcohol, and smoking. The clinical presentation of pneumonia in the elderly (≥65 years of age) may be subtle, lacking the typical acute symptoms (fever, cough, dyspnea, and purulent sputum) observed in younger adults. Pneumonia should be suspected in all elderly patients who have fever, altered mental status, or a sudden decline in functional status, with or without lower respiratory tract symptoms such as cough, purulent sputum, and dyspnea. Treatment of CAP in the elderly should be guided by the latest recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS), along with consideration of local rates and patterns of antimicrobial resistance, as well as individual patient risk factors for acquiring less common or more resistant pathogens. Recommended empiric antimicrobial regimens generally consist of either a β-lactam plus a macrolide or a respiratory fluoroquinolone alone. Adherence to the IDSA/ATS guidelines has been found to improve in-hospital mortality (adherence vs nonadherence, 8%; 95% CI, 7%-10% vs 17%; 95% CI, 14%-20%; P< 0.01), length of hospital stay (8 days; interquartile range [IQR], 5-15 vs 10 days; IQR, 6-24 days, respectively; P < 0.01), and time to clinical stability in elderly patients with CAP (percentage of stable patients by day 7, 71%; 95% CI, 68%-74% vs 57%; 95% CI, 53%-61%, respectively; P < 0.01). All elderly patients should be vaccinated against pneumococcal disease and influenza based on recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lifestyle modifications and nutritional support are also important elements in the prevention of pneumonia in the elderly. Conclusion: Adherence to established guidelines, along with customization of antimicrobial therapy based on local rates and patterns of resistance and patient-specific risk factors, likely will improve the treatment outcome of elderly patients with CAP. © 2010 Excerpta Medica Inc. All rights reserved.

Monteagudo-Chu M.O.,Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center | Chang M.H.,James ters Medical Center | Fung H.B.,James ters Medical Center | Brau N.,James ters Medical Center | Brau N.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Journal of Pharmacy Practice | Year: 2012

Data are sparse on long-term renal toxicity of tenofovir as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and progression to advanced stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of the study is to determine the incidence of renal impairment associated with the use of tenofovir in HIV-infected patients, using abacavir as a control. In a single tertiary care center, all HIV-infected patients with baseline CKD stage 0 or 1 (CKD-1), who were started on either tenofovir or abacavir from 1998 to 2008 and had at least 1 follow-up eGFR measure on therapy, were included in this retrospective analysis. Progression to CKD stages 2 to 5 was compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Progression to CKD-2 and CKD-3 occurred more frequently in patients who received tenofovir than those receiving abacavir (CKD-2, 2-year actuarial frequency, 48.8% vs 23.7%; P <.001, log rank; CKD-3, 5.8% vs 0.0%; P =.028). Only 1 patient in the tenofovir group progressed to CKD-4 and none to CKD-5. Treatment with tenofovir was the only independent factor associated with progression to CKD-2 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41-3.18; P <.001) and to CKD-3 (HR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.02-23.7; P =.048). In HIV-infected patients, long-term therapy with tenofovir is associated with mild-to-moderate nephrotoxicity which is significantly higher than in abacavir-treated patients. © The Author(s) 2012.

Parnes N.,Tri County Orthopedics | Friedman D.,Cornell University | Phillips C.,New York Presbyterian Lower ManhattanNY | Phillips C.,Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center | Carey P.,U.S. Army
Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery | Year: 2015

Purpose We report the outcome of an arthroscopic technique for coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction using an anatomic coracoid cerclage. Methods Between March 2011 and September 2012, 12 consecutive patients with symptomatic chronic (>4 weeks from injury) type V acromioclavicular separation for which nonoperative treatment failed were treated with arthroscopic double-bundle reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments using tendon allograft by the first author. The clinical records, operative reports, and preoperative and follow-up radiographs were reviewed. The visual analog scale score, Subjective Shoulder Value, Simple Shoulder Test score, and Constant-Murley score were evaluated preoperatively and at each follow-up appointment. Results The study included 12 shoulders in 12 young active-duty soldiers with symptomatic high-grade acromioclavicular separation who were treated with a technique for arthroscopic reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments. The mean age was 25 years (range, 20 to 35 years). The injury occurred during sports activity in 11 patients. One patient was injured in a motorcycle accident. The mean time from injury to surgery was 17.8 months (range, 1.5 to 72 months). The minimum length of follow-up was 24 months (mean, 30.4 months; range, 24 to 42 months). The mean preoperative and postoperative outcome scores were significantly different (P <.0001) for all subjective outcome measures. The mean Constant-Murley score improved from 58.4 (range, 51 to 76) to 96 (range, 88 to 100). The mean visual analog scale score improved from 8.1 (range, 7 to 10) to 0.58 (range, 0 to 2). The mean Subjective Shoulder Value improved from 32.9% (range, 10% to 70%) to 95% (range, 80% to 100%). The mean Simple Shoulder Test score improved from 6 (range, 5 to 8) to 11.83 (range, 11 to 12). All patients returned to their normal preinjury level of activity by 6 months. Radiographs at last follow-up showed no loss of reduction with maintenance of the coracoclavicular interval. There was 1 complication (8.5%), a postoperative superficial wound infection, that was treated accordingly. Conclusions We present an arthroscopic technique for double-bundle tendon graft reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments using the coracoid cerclage technique. This method showed good outcomes and maintenance of radiographic reduction with high patient satisfaction and a low complication rate. Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America.

Hassan E.,Philips | Hassan E.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Badawi O.,Philips | Badawi O.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | And 3 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2010

Critically ill patients are particularly susceptible to adverse drug events (ADEs) due to their rapidly changing and unstable physiology, complex therapeutic regimens, and large percentage of medications administered intravenously. There are a wide variety of technologies that can help prevent the points of failure commonly associated with ADEs (i.e., the five "Rights": right patient; right drug; right route; right dose; right frequency). These technologies are often categorized by their degree of complexity to design and engineer and the type of error they are designed to prevent. Focusing solely on the software and hardware design of technology may over-or underestimate the degree of difficulty to avoid ADEs at the bedside. Alternatively, we propose categorizing technological solutions by identifying the factors essential for success. The two major critical success factors are: 1) the degree of clinical assessment required by the clinician to appropriately evaluate and disposition the issue identified by a technology; and 2) the complexity associated with effective implementation. This classification provides a way of determining how ADE-preventing technologies in the intensive care unit can be successfully integrated into clinical practice. Although there are limited data on the effectiveness of many technologies in reducing ADEs, we will review the technologies currently available in the intensive care unit environment. We will also discuss critical success factors for implementation, common errors made during implementation, and the potential errors using these systems. Copyright © 2010 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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