SALEH M.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna |
ABDEL-BAKI A.-A.,KingSaudUniversity |
ABDEL-BAKI A.-A.,Beni Suef University |
DKHIL M.A.,KingSaudUniversity |
And 3 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2017
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a widespread, ciliated protozoan ectoparasite of fish. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metal nanoparticles on the reproduction and infectivity of free-living stages of I. multifiliis. We determined that ~50% of theronts could be killed within 30 min of exposure to either 20 ng mL−1 gold, 10 ng mL−1 silver or 5 ng mL−1 zinc oxide nanoparticles. Silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles at concentration of 10 and 5 ng mL−1 killed 100 and 97% of theronts, respectively and inhibited reproduction of tomonts after 2 h exposure. Gold nanoparticles at 20 ng mL killed 80 and 78% of tomonts and theronts 2 h post exposure, respectively. In vivo exposure studies using rainbow trout (Oncoryhnchus mykiss) demonstrated that theronts, which survived zinc oxide nanoparticles exposure, showed reduced infectivity compared with control theronts. No mortalities were recorded in the fish groups cohabited with theronts exposed to either nanoparticles compared with 100% mortality in the control group. On the basis of the results obtained from this study, metal nanoparticles particularly silver nanoparticles hold the best promise for the development of effective antiprotozoal agents useful in the management of ichthyophthiriosis in aquaculture. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Malik A.,KingSaudUniversity |
Jagirdar H.,KingSaudUniversity |
Rabbani N.,KingSaudUniversity |
Khan M.S.,KingSaudUniversity |
And 3 more authors.
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2015
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes and play an important role in cellular detoxification. Besides this, GSTs act as cytosolic carrier proteins that bind hydrophobic compounds such as heme, bilirubin, steroids, and polycyclic hydrocarbons. GST has great importance in biotechnology, as it is a target for vaccine and drug development and biosensors development for xenobiotics. Moreover, the GST tag has been extensively used for protein expression and purification. Until now, biophysical properties of camel liver GST have not been characterized. In the present study we have purified camel (Camelus dromedarius) liver GST to homogeneity in a single step by affinity chromatography with 23.4-fold purification and 60.6% yield. Our results showed that maximal activity of GST was at pH 6.5 and it was stable in the pH range of 5 to 10. The optimum temperature was 55°C and the Tm was 57°C. The chemical chaperone glycerol (3.3 M) was able to protect GST activity and aggregation against thermal denaturation by stabilizing the protein structure at 50 and 57°C, respectively. However, L-Arginine (125 mM) did not protect GST against thermal stress. Far-ultraviolet circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that glycerol protected the secondary structure of GST while L-Arginine induced conformational changes under thermal stress. In conclusion, our studies on the GST stability suggest that glycerol works as a stabilizer and L-Arginine acts as a destabilizer. © 2015 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.